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ocular manifestation of systemic diseases

Why Eye Evaluation?

The primary care physician frequently encounters patients with ocular symptoms and signs that may signal serious underlying systemic disorders. In such cases, the Ocular manifestation of systemic disease as obtained from an ocular examination may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying systemic disease. Alternatively, patients known to have systemic diseases may develop ocular problems that require the attention of an eye care profession. For these reasons, the primary care physician should be familiar with the common ocular complications of frequently encountered systemic diseases as there often ocular manifestation of systemic diseases. And as well encourage for regular routine eye evaluation and check.

To provide a framework for approaching ocular manifestations of systemic disease, there is need for ocular evaluation or eye evaluation. 

This program is organized according to these list of systemic diseases with ocular manifestation: 

  • Congenital,
  •  Traumatic,
  •  vascular, 
  • neoplastic, 
  • autoimmune, 
  • idiopathic, 
  • infectious, 
  • metabolic/endocrine, and 
  • drugs/toxins.

To avoid overlooking pathology of the eye in systemic diseases, it is important that the primary care physician or Optometrist considers performing an eye examination for each patient. The complete eye evaluation should include:

 1. Visual acuity 

2. External examination (lids and orbit) 

3. Pupils (including assessment for relative afferent pupillary defect) 

4. Motility examination 

5. Examination of anterior segment (conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, anterior chamber, and lens) 

6. Dilated ophthalmoscopy 

7. Visual fields Patients with visual symptoms need an ophthalmologic referral because ocular findings such as anterior chamber inflammation, corneal dendrites, or retinal pathology can be easily missed.

In addition, there should be due considerations of eye diseases and treatment options to save sight.


Ocular manifestation is a feature of numerous congenital syndromes, including Down syndrome, Marfan syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, tuberous sclerosis, metabolic disorders involving lysosomal storage and carbohydrate metabolism, and neurofibromatosis. An ocular examination may provide key findings in an effort to establish a definitive diagnosis with key monitoring of ophthalmic manifestation in systemic diseases.

Examples of Congenital disorders with ocular manisfestations


ocular manifestation of neurofibromatosis
ocular manifestation of neurofibromatosis

Classical neurofibromatosis (NF1) is among the most common inherited disorders in humans, with an estimated incidence of 3 in 10,000. 

The disease is characterized by 

• 6 or more hyperpigmented skin macules (café-au-lait spots; see the slide, left) 

• 2 or more cutaneous neurofibromata or 1 plexiform neurofibroma

 • Melanocytic hamartomata of the iris (Lisch nodules; see the slide, right) 

• Multiple “freckles” in the intertriginous areas 

• Distinctive osseous lesions (eg, sphenoid dysplasia, pseudoarthrosis or thinning of the long bone cortex)

 • Glioma of the anterior visual pathway

 • Patient history of a first-degree relative with NF1 Ophthalmic manifestations of classical neurofibromatosis may commonly involve the eyelid, iris, orbit, and optic nerve. 

The iris Lisch nodules may be one of the key signs in screening individuals. Ninety-five percent of individuals with NF1 will have Lisch nodules by the time they are 6 years old. 


Shaken Baby Syndrome and the eyes

action of shaken baby syndrome
fundus of shaken baby syndrome
fundus of shaken baby syndrome

The shaken baby syndrome is increasingly evident in our society. Injuries in a child with a history that is not appropriate for the injury sustained should raise a suspicion of child abuse. Ocular manifestation of this syndrome can be detected with a dilated fundus examination may reveal  form of preretinal, intraretinal (including white centered hemorrhages), or vitreous hemorrhages. Photographic documentation of retinal findings should be obtained immediately, as these findings may be fleeting. 


Systemic Hypertension

fundus of hypertensive patient
fundus of hypertensive patient

Systemic diseases such as hypertension is a cardio vascular disease that affect the retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve circulations. A variety of retinal vascular changes can be seen in this systemic disease; these depend in part on the severity and duration of the hypertension. Ocular manifestation of systemic diseases such as hypertension include retinal changes in form of flame-shaped hemorrhages in the superficial layers of the retina and cotton-wool patches caused by occlusion of the precapillary arterioles with ischemic infarction of the inner retina. Long-standing hypertension can produce arteriolar sclerotic vascular changes, such as copper or silver wiring of the arterioles, as shown by the two arrows on the right, or arteriorvenous nicking. Another ocular manifestation sign of chronic hypertension in the fundus of a hypertensive patient is lipid exudates resulting from abnormal vascular permeability, as shown by the arrow at left. More ominous in this photograph is swelling of the optic disc as its most common ocular manifestation, seen here by the blurring of the temporal disc margins. This is the hallmark of malignant hypertension, which carries a poor prognosis for the patient’s health if left untreated. BP must be emergently controlled to decrease the risk of developing heart and renal failure and hypertensive encephalopathy as well as stroke and permanent vision loss. 

Embolic Disease 

cholesterol emboli eye
cholesterol emboli eye

Emboli to the ophthalmic circulation can lodge in the ophthalmic artery or the central retinal artery, producing severe loss of vision that can be transient or permanent (left). In the elderly, the most common source of emboli is fibrin and cholesterol from ulcerated plaques in the wall of the carotid artery. The so-called Hollenhorst plaque is a refractile cholesterol embolus that lodges at an arterial bifurcation, as shown in the right-hand slide.

cholesterol emboli eye
cholesterol emboli eye

Emboli of cardiac origin may come from calcified heart valves in patients with a history of rheumatic fever, from an atrial myxoma, or from fibrin-platelet emboli in patients with mitral valve prolapse, as seen here in this left eye with superotemporal branch retinal artery occlusion. This is cholesterol based systemic disease with ocular manifestation.

Cholesterol emboli eye presents with sudden, persistent visual loss may be due to occlusion of the central retinal artery, and emergency ophthalmologic evaluation is indicated. Ophthalmoscopic examination will reveal narrowed retinal arterioles and a pale retina. Edema with loss of retinal transparency in all areas except the fovea gives rise to the appearance known as the “cherry-red spot” (left). All these ocular manifestation can be prevented if detected early. Compare that appearance with a normal fundus (right). Emergency treatment is directed to decreasing intraocular pressure and to vasodilation in an attempt to allow the obstructing embolus to pass into less critical, smaller-caliber vessels.

central retinal artery occlusion
central retinal artery occlusion

Other sources of emboli include talc in intravenous drug abusers, as seen here in the macula, and fat in patients with long bone fractures. Talc emboli do not typically cause occlusion or ischemia although rarely they may be associated with retinal neovascularization.  

Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

central retinal vein occlusion
central retinal vein occlusion

Another cause of painless vision loss is a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). This vision loss may be mild to profound and is often due to macular edema. The onset of a CRVO is usually rapid. Ophthalmic examination will reveal retinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots. The findings of severe vision loss or an afferent pupillary defect indicate a greater risk for the ischemic type of CRVO, which carries a poor prognosis and is more highly associated with rubeotic glaucoma. Fifty percent of patients who have a CRVO have open-angle glaucoma and/or systemic hypertension. A systemic workup in patients with a CRVO should include measurement of blood pressure and exclusion of other vasculopathic risk factors. Blood workup to rule out coagulopathies (including Factor V deficiency), hyperlipidemia, collagen vascular diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes may be considered.

Migraine: Ocular Migraine

migraine visual sypmtoms

Migraine is a transient vasospastic phenomenon affecting the cerebral and/or ocular circulations. Paroxysmal neurologic or visual symptoms include scintillations, amaurosis fugax, transient cortical blindness, and transient homonymous hemifield loss, which consists of nasal field loss in one eye and temporal field loss in the other. Migraine symptoms, which are presumably due to focal cortical or ocular ischemia, may last from 15 to 45 minutes.

In classic ocular migraines, these visual symptoms are followed by an intense, throbbing headache. Common migraine is a periodic headache of varying intensity without a preceding aura. Complicated migraine occurs when frequent severe migraine headache results in a persistent visual or other neurologic deficit. However, the visual phenomena may occur without headaches, which is called ocular or acephalgic migraine or migraine equivalent. A treatable vascular disease such as vasculitis or arteriovenous malformation needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of acephalgic migraine. 

The Migraine treatment depends on the frequency of the episodes and can be directed to preventing attacks rather than aborting them. Episodes that occur less frequently than once a month may not require treatment. Fortunately, the paroxysmal ocular phenomena rarely lead to permanent visual deficits, but patients with visual loss during attacks should probably have an ophthalmologic evaluation. Discontinuation of oral contraceptives should be considered, as they may trigger vascular occlusive disease in migraine patients.


A blood dyscrasia is any abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood. Ocular manifestation of blood dyscrasias include hyperviscosity syndromes, thrombocytopenia, and all forms of anemia, including sickle cell anemia.

 Hyperviscosity Syndromes

fundus with blood dyscrasias

Patients with such as polycythemia, multiple myeloma, dysproteinemia, and leukemia may present with visual complaints. These include amaurosis fugax and permanent visual loss.

Initial fundus changes are retinal vein dilation, retinal hemorrhages, and varying amounts of disc edema (as seen in this fundus).


ocular photo of leukamia
ocular photo of leukamia

Patients with leukemia may present with a hemorrhagic type of retinopathy, as seen here. Note both the retinal and the preretinal hemorrhages (see arrows). The hemorrhages are presumably due to thrombocytopenia of leukemia. White centered hemorrhages may indicate metastatic leukemic infiltration of the retina.

Direct leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve 

Direct leukemic infiltration of the optic nerve can cause pronounced optic nerve swelling and vascular congestion with edema and hemorrhages of the surrounding retina, as seen here. This can rapidly lead to blindness if not treated promptly with radiation. Periodic dilated funduscopic examination is recommended for asymptomatic patients with hyperviscosity syndromes, and referral to an ophthalmologist is indicated if any ocular symptoms or signs develop.

ocular manifetstaion in leukamia
ocular manifetstaion in leukamia

Sickle Cell Anemia : How does sickle cell disease affcets the eyes

Sickle cell retinopathy occurs most frequently in the HbSC form of the disease but may also be seen in the HbSS form and in sickle thalassemia. Sickle cell retinopathy is not seen in patients with sickle cell trait only.

fundus of a sickle cell anaemia
fundus of a sickle cell anaemia

Sickling can produce retinal arterial occlusions, especially in the retinal periphery, as shown by the arrows in the slide (left). The retinal ischemia can lead to peripheral (“sea fan”) neovascularization (as seen in this slide, right), vitreous hemorrhage, and tractional retinal detachment. Panretinal laser photocoagulation may be necessary to expedite regression of the neovascular process. General anesthesia can produce sickling and thereby increase the risk of arterial occlusive disease. Sickle cell eyes treatment should begin with ophthalmologic evaluation because patients may be asymptomatic, even in advanced stages of the retinopathy, due to the peripheral location of the retinal changes, which can only be visualized via indirect ophthalmoscopy through a dilated pupil.


The most common ocular tumors or type of intraocular malignancy in adults is metastatic carcinoma, arising from primaries in the breast or lung in women and in the lung in men. Patients are often asymptomatic but may present with decreased or distorted vision.

Iris Metastais
Iris Metastais

An easily detected iris mass is visible in this patient with metastatic lung carcinoma. An irregularly shaped pupil, iritis, or blood in the anterior chamber may signal a metastatic nodule, as seen here.

Choroidal metastases  from breast cancer

choroidal metastasis from breast cancer
choroidal metastasis from breast cancer

Because of its rich vascular supply, the choroid is the most common site for ocular metastasis. Choroidal metastases may be solitary or multiple and may affect one or both eyes. Typically they appear as creamy-white lesions, as seen in this patient with metastatic breast cancer. Associated leopard spotting may also be detected. Choroidal metastases are often subtle and difficult to detect with direct ophthalmoscopy and may require referral to an ophthalmologist if suspected or if visual loss or visual distortion develops. Treatment options include local radiation and chemotherapy.

Because ocular metastases may represent the smallest clinically detectable lesions of disseminated carcinoma, an ophthalmologist monitoring these lesions at regular intervals may help to assess the efficacy of systemic treatment. However, prognosis for survival after detection of an intraocular metastasis is generally poor, with a mean length of survival of 6 to 9 months. Retinoblastoma is one of the most metastatic tumors of the retina.


Certain autoimmune disorders, such as connective tissue diseases, thyroid eye disease, and myasthenia gravis, can initially present with ocular manifestations only. Thus, it is extremely important for the primary care specialist to screen for those disorders in patients with the most common ocular symptom (dry eyes) so that these patients can receive the appropriate treatment as early as possible in the course of these diseases.

Ocular manifestation of Connective Tissue Disorders (Collagen Vascular Diseases)

Connective tissue disorders have various ocular manifestations, the most common being tear deficiency leading to dry eyes, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The symptoms of dry eyes include burning, a foreign-body or gritty sensation, and photophobia.

Sjögren’s syndrome, the complex of dry eyes and dry mouth, may occur in isolation or in association with a connective tissue disorder. Specific antibodies such as anti-SS-A (or antiRo) may be associated with Sjögren’s syndrome. 

Artificial tears are the primary treatment for mild to moderate keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Generally, to be efficacious, they must be used several times a day on a regular basis. Numerous commercial preparations are available, and the patient’s preference is sometimes the best criterion for selecting a given agent. Patients with severe dry eyes or with sensitivity to preservatives should be steered to one of the preservative-free lanolin-free formulations. Nighttime administration of lubricating ointment may also be helpful. Occlusion of the lacrimal drainage puncta can aid retention of tears. Environmental modifications include humidifiers, goggles, and side shields on glasses. Recent advances demonstrate the efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents, administered in topical form. 

Tear film distortion in

Severe tear deficiency may be unresponsive to routine use of artificial tears and can result in corneal epithelial breakdown, ulceration, and even perforation, as seen here. Consultation by an ophthalmologist is indicated for patients with tear deficiency states who have persistent pain or visual loss. 

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Does it cause uveitis?

Up to 25% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis have one or more attacks of iritis, a form of intraocular inflammation, which may precede the clinical arthritis. Patients typically present with ocular symptoms such as; photophobia, redness, and decreased vision. Patients with symptoms or signs suggestive of iritis (shown here) should be referred for evaluation by an ophthalmologist.

Iritis usually responds to treatment with topical corticosteroids and dilating agents. However, topical corticosteroids should be prescribed only with the advice of an ophthalmologist, because long-term corticosteroid therapy can lead to glaucoma, cataract formation, or exacerbation of ocular infections, and, in some connective tissue disorders, to ocular perforation.

Most common ocular manifestation in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

The ocular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis are most often seen in patients with more active and severe forms of the disease and in those with extra-articular complications. Aside from dry eyes, other common ocular manifestations are inflammation of the episclera and sclera, peripheral corneal ulcers, and uveitis. 

Episcleritis is inflammation of the superficial tissue overlying the sclera. Typically patients complain of mild to moderate pain and tenderness, and there is localized or diffuse redness of the eye. 


Scleritis (inflammation of the sclera) may sometimes appear clinically similar to episcleritis. However, severe, deep pain is a distinguishing feature of scleritis. 


Scleritis may be characterized by active inflammation with redness, as seen on the left, and severe pain. It can progress to necrosis, as seen on the right, and subsequent perforation of the sclera (necrotizing scleritis). 

Scleromalacia perforans consists of scleral melting in a white, quiet eye. This condition also can lead to ocular perforation. 

Peripheral corneal ulceration is another manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis that may result in ocular perforation. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis who develop peripheral corneal ulceration or scleritis have an associated risk for developing potentially lethal systemic vasculitis. Primary care physicians should monitor patients with active rheumatoid arthritis for symptoms and signs of episcleritis, scleritis, and corneal ulcers; patients who develop these ocular conditions should be referred to an ophthalmologist for treatment.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ocular involvement in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis typically occurs in patients with a mild form of the disease, the so-called pauci-articular form, and in patients who are rheumatoid-factor negative and ANA positive. Ocular complications may occasionally be the presenting feature of this disease and do not correlate with the severity or course of the systemic signs. The characteristic triad of late ocular complications in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis consists of iritis, cataract, and, as seen here, band keratopathy, which consists of whitish deposits of calcium in the cornea. Band keratopathy is a late sequela of many forms of chronic intraocular inflammation. Iritis or iridocyclitis can occur in up to 15% of patients with JRA and causes few symptoms or signs. The iritis is usually chronic, causing secondary cataract formation and glaucoma. All patients with JRA should be screened and followed by an ophthalmologist.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can have many of the same ocular manifestations associated with rheumatoid arthritis, such as dry eyes, scleritis, and peripheral corneal ulceration. The most common severe manifestations of SLE, however, involve the vasculature of the retina and optic nerve.

A variety of retinal complications can occur in SLE, including retinal vasculitis with cotton wool spots, as seen here, and hypertensive retinopathy secondary to renal involvement. Lupus anticoagulant or phospholipid antibody syndrome is a variant characterized by a higher incidence of thrombotic episodes, which may cause vascular occlusions and may require anticoagulant therapy. 

Lupus vasculitis can also involve the optic nerve, resulting in ischemic optic neuropathy. Note the pale, swollen nerve in this young woman, who presented with visual loss due to ischemic optic neuropathy as the initial manifestation of SLE. Ophthalmologic evaluation is indicated for patients who have central nervous system involvement or visual symptoms. Detection of retinal vasculitis can also assist, in certain instances, in establishing the diagnosis of SLE.

Polyarteritis or Periarteritis Nodosa 

This condition is a widespread inflammatory disease affecting small and medium-size blood vessels, most commonly in middle-aged men. In addition to dry eyes, the ocular manifestations are peripheral corneal ulceration, scleritis, associated hypertensive retinopathy, and primary retinal vasculitis similar to that seen in patients with SLE. Other connective tissue diseases associated with ocular inflammation are Reiter’s syndrome, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Behcet’s disease. Wegener’s can be associated with anterior or posterior scleritis and/or retinal vasculitis including retinal vascular obstruction. The classic triad of Behcets includes hypopyon uveitis, arthritis and oral ulcers. Fulminant occlusive retinal vasculitis with progressive retinal necrosis may warrant aggressive immunosuppressant therapy.


Sarcoidosis, a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology, is characterized in part by granulomatous inflammation of many organs. This disease more commonly affects the African-American and Hispanic populations. Ocular involvement occurs in about 25% of patients presenting with other features of sarcoidosis. 

The most common ocular presentation is granulomatous uveitis, characterized in part by large clumps of cellular deposits on the endothelial layer of the cornea, which are called keratic precipitates (left). 

Choroiditis and retinal vasculitis, usually segmental, may occur in a small percentage of patients. The typically gray, perivenous infiltrates are characteristically called “candlewax drippings” (right). Optic disc involvement is rare but may occur in patients with central nervous system involvement. Edema or granuloma of the optic nerve may be present. 

Many of these changes are difficult to detect with direct ophthalmoscopy, and dilated ophthalmologic evaluation is indicated for all patients who have sarcoidosis with suspected ocular involvement. Treatment of the ocular problems is similar to treatment of the systemic disease and often includes the use of topical, injectable, or systemic corticosteroids. 

Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis

Giant cell, or temporal, arteritis is a systemic vasculitis that usually affects people over age 60. Although almost any artery can be involved, this disease has a predilection for large and medium sized vessels, particularly the superficial temporal, ophthalmic, and proximal portion of the vertebral arteries. The symptoms include headache, scalp tenderness, jaw pain and difficulty in chewing (claudication), the polymyalgia rheumatica complex (myalgia, weight loss, anorexia, and fever of unknown origin), and acute visual loss. Palpation of the temporal artery may reveal tenderness, a lack of pulsations, and enlargement or nodular thickening of the vessel. 

Ischemic optic neuropathy, or infarction of the optic nerve head, is the most common presentation of giant cell arteritis; it is associated with severe unilateral loss of vision, a relative afferent pupillary defect or Marcus Gunn pupil, and, as shown here, a pale, swollen optic nerve head. 

Cranial motor nerve palsy is the initial ophthalmic presentation of giant cell arteritis in about 10% of patients; it is due to nerve ischemia resulting from occlusion of the vascular supply to the nerve. Most commonly, the third cranial nerve is affected, producing ptosis and outward deviation of the eye on the involved side (as seen here), with sparing of the pupil. In the elderly, a cranial nerve palsy should raise suspicion of giant cell arteritis, especially if accompanied by headache or pain.  

If giant cell arteritis is suspected, a STAT erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein must be obtained, followed by a temporal artery biopsy. A low or normal sedimentation rate does not exclude this diagnosis, especially if the patient is taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents for other reasons. (Up to 20% may have a normal sedimentation rate.) Fluorescein angiography is a photographic test that can reveal characteristic deficits in the choroidal circulation of the eye. Histopathologic examination of the temporal artery typically reveals a patchy, granulomatous inflammatory reaction that involves the media and the adventitia of the artery. 

A potentially blinding disease, giant cell arteritis usually affects the second eye in a matter of hours or days if untreated. Therefore, this condition is considered an emergency, and treatment must be initiated empirically without waiting for the laboratory results. Therapy consists of high daily doses of systemic corticosteroids, which are gradually tapered according to serial sedimentation rates and the patient’s symptoms, both of which are monitored closely. Recent studies suggest that there is a more rapid response if patients are begun on intravenous corticosteroids for 24 to 48 hours before switching to oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroids should be started before the biopsy, as biopsy results will not be affected for a number of days. Patients suspected of having giant cell arteritis are best managed jointly by the primary care physician, rheumatologist, and ophthalmologist.

Thyroid Disorders

Ocular abnormalities are common in patients who suffer from thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is not always correlated with serum thyroid hormone levels and may occur even in patients who are euthyroid. It is important to remember that the eye disease may continue to progress after thyroid function tests have returned to normal. All of the ocular manifestations should be closely followed in conjunction with an ophthalmologist.

Thyroid eye disease can vary in its severity and presentation. It can involve the eyelids, orbit, extraocular muscles, cornea, conjunctiva, and optic nerve. Ocular involvement can be unilateral or bilateral.

Lid retraction causes the patient to have a widened palpebral fissure, as seen on the left. Sometimes the sclera is exposed above or below the corneoscleral limbus; this is termed scleral show. The patient on the right exhibits soft tissue involvement, with eyelid fullness and injection of the conjunctiva.

Thyroid ophthalmopathy can cause proptosis, or exophthalmos (left). The extraocular muscles can become enlarged secondary to lymphocytic infiltration. This can lead to diplopia from restriction of eye movements. The muscle most commonly affected is the inferior rectus muscle, which causes restriction on attempted up gaze (shown at right, in patient’s left eye). 

In severe cases, vision loss can occur. Proptosis and lid retraction can lead to corneal damage, as seen on the left. Sight loss can also occur due to optic nerve compression. The optic disc may appear swollen, as in the clinical photograph on the right, or may be atrophic. In early stages of optic nerve compression, the optic nerve can appear normal. 

In severe cases, vision loss can occur. Proptosis and lid retraction can lead to corneal damage, as seen on the left. Sight loss can also occur due to optic nerve compression. The optic disc may appear swollen, as in the clinical photograph on the right, or may be atrophic. In early stages of optic nerve compression, the optic nerve can appear normal.

Computed tomography of the orbit may demonstrate proptosis, as seen in the left scan, and extraocular muscle swelling or enlargement, as seen in both scans.

Thyroid ophthalmopathy typically occurs in two phases that should be jointly managed by the primary care physician and the ophthalmologist. The first phase is characterized by acute congestive changes and lasts an average of 2 years. Treatment in this phase is directed toward preserving sight and providing symptomatic relief. Medical treatment for corneal problems includes the use of tear substitutes in the form of drops or ointments. For the extraocular muscle or optic nerve involvement during the acute congestive phase, intermittent high doses of corticosteroids may be employed. If this therapy fails, orbital irradiation or surgical decompression may be required to save deteriorating vision. 

The second phase is marked by cicatricial changes in the eyelids, extraocular muscles, or orbit. Treatment may consist of surgically correcting the ocular muscle deviation, the functional abnormalities, or the cosmetic deformities. 

Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis is a myopathy that may occur at any age. It is an autoimmune disease affecting the acetylcholine receptors, causing a conduction defect at the neuromuscular junction. About 75% of patients present with ocular manifestations, including bilateral ptosis (as seen in this patient), limited eye movements, and/or diplopia. Among these patients, approximately 20% will have only ocular manifestations. Any patients with ptosis and diplopia of unclear etiology, especially if variable and worsening with fatigue, should be presumed to have myasthenia gravis. Referral to a neurologist may be necessary because of systemic involvement, including apnea and choking due to involvement of respiratory and pharyngeal muscles. 


Intracranial Hypertension

The most common ocular manifestation of intracranial hypertension is optic disc swelling, which in this condition is referred to as papilledema. The visual symptoms of papilledema are often mild or absent; the most common are transient visual obscurations, which can range from mild blurring to complete visual loss, usually lasting only a few seconds. Ophthalmoscopy typically reveals marked disc swelling and vascular engorgement, as seen here.

Common causes of intracranial hypertension include brain tumor, meningitis, venous sinus thrombosis, hydrocephalus and the entity pseudotumor cerebri, or idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Pseudotumor cerebri may be associated with vitamin A or vitamin D intoxication, tetracycline therapy, and steroid withdrawal. Pseudotumor cerebri has a propensity to occur in young, obese women, and in most cases a precipitating factor is not found. Disc edema can also be caused by conditions that are not associated with increased intracranial hypertension, such as sarcoidosis, syphilis, tumor, and pseudo-disc edema from causes such as optic nerve head drusen (shown). 

Multiple Sclerosis

Within 5 years of an episode of optic neuritis, more than 40% of women aged 20 to 40 will manifest signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Optic neuritis presents as an acute, painful vision loss in one or both eyes occurring over a few days to two weeks. It may be the initial manifestation of multiple sclerosis. After one episode, 70% of eyes with optic neuritis recover spontaneously within 3 to 6 months. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial demonstrated that patients treated with intravenous methylprednisolone, 250 mg every 6 hours for 3 days, followed by 1 day of oral prednisone, had a more rapid visual recovery than a placebo-treated control group. By 1-year follow-up, however, there was no statistically significant difference between the treated group and the control group. In addition to intravenous methylprednisolone, another medication that has been shown to be of benefit is interferon beta-1a. A multicenter trial of interferon beta-1a (Avonex) showed a reduction of recurrent MS attacks, slowing of cognitive deterioration, and lessening of disease activity, as measured by gadolinium-enhanced MRI.  


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Dry eyes are very common in patients with AIDS, but they are a nonspecific finding. The three most common classic lesions are retinal cotton-wool spots, cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, and Kaposi’s sarcoma of the eyelid or conjunctiva.

Cotton-wool patches, which are due to obstruction of the precapillary arterioles with infarction of the superficial retina, are the most common ocular finding in patients with HIV infection. Associated intraretinal hemorrhages may also be present and these findings are collectively referred to as HIV noninfectious retinopathy.

Patients with AIDS can develop infectious retinitis secondary to a variety of opportunistic organisms. Ocular manifestation of systemic diseases in HIV/AIDS patients, often come in form cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, as seen in this patient, which is characterized by discrete, fluffy, white retinal necrotic patches with hemorrhages. Because cytomegalovirus retinitis can begin in the retinal periphery, patients with AIDS should be referred for ophthalmologic evaluation evaluation especially if symptomatic or with reduced T-cell counts.

CMV retinitis therapy has evolved significantly. The incidence of CMV retinitis has decreased tremendously with the advent of HAART (Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy). If CMV retinitis is detected in a patient who is not on HAART, the patient must be immune reconstituted with anti-retroviral medications. Induction IV ganciclovir or foscarnet is also necessary, and intravitreal injections of ganciclovir may be considered. As cytomegalovirus infection is usually a systemic infection, intravenous therapy is usually the treatment of choice. The primary care physician and the ophthalmologist must work closely together to monitor efficacy of therapy and side effects of the treatment. As CD4 counts increase and viral load decreases to an acceptable level, IV and intravitreal ganciclovir administration may be withheld as long as the CD4 counts remain above 100. If patients develop CMV retinitis on HAART or have no response to IV therapy, then ganciclovir implants and intravitreal injections are necessary.

In patients with AIDS, opportunistic infections such as CMV retinitis occur predominantly when CD4 counts fall below 50 cells/ml. However, other retinal infections such as syphilis, toxoplasmosis, herpes simplex virus, or varicella-related retinitis (acute retinal necrosis syndrome) may occur in immunocompromised or immunocompetent eyes. 



Diabetes commonly produces significant ocular complications that may lead to blindness as an Ocular manifestation of systemic disease , if not recognized and treated. Diabetic retinopathy is now the leading cause of new blindness in adults aged 20–74 in the United States. Because of its ophthalmologic significance, diabetic retinopathy is covered in detail in Diabetes and Eye Disease, a separate educational program in this series, and is not discussed further here.


Ocular manifestation of systemic diseases could sometimes be as a result of the medications these patients take to treat the disease conditiion. Significant ocular side effects including vision loss can be caused by systemic medications, for example, toxic retinopathy can be caused by thioridazine, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and tamoxifen, and toxic optic neuropathy can be caused by ethambutol, isoniazid, and fluoroquinolones. 

Imole Noble Educational Foundation (INEF) 2021 Undergraduate Scholarship Award For Nigerian Students


Imole Noble Educational Foundation (INEF) is now accepting applications from eligible Nigerian undergraduate students for its 2021 Scholarship Award.

The scholarship is opened to brilliant indigent students who are in 100 to 200 level in public universities across the 6 geo-political zones in Nigeria. Winners of the scholarship would be awarded financial aid throughout their undergraduate studies.

This is in fulfilment of the Founder’s life long burden for the plight of the less privileged in the society.

INEF Undergraduate Scholarship details

Type: Undergraduate

Country: Nigeria

Course of study: not specified

Level : 100 & 200L

Institution: not specified

State of origin: not specified

Deadline : October 10, 2021

Requirements for INEF Undergraduate Scholarship Qualification

  • Applicants must be in either 100 or 200 level in public universities in Nigeria and
  • Applicants must have had a minimum of 5As, and 3Bs in O’level result(s), in not more than 1 (one) sitting.

Documents for Application

  • O’level result,
  • Admission Letter,
  • Departmental registration form,
  • School ID Card, and Two (2) recent passport photographs with name at the back page.

Application Deadline

October 10, 2021

How to Apply

Interested and qualified candidates should addressed and send their “Application Details” to:

The Trustees,

Imole Noble Educational Foundation,

P.O. Box 139, G.P.O,

Marina, Lagos State.

Application Details

Applicants should indicate the following in their Application: Name, School, Course of Study, Level, State of Origin, Phone Number, and Email Address, with copies of the following documents above

Interview date, Process and Venue for INEF Undergraduate Scholarship

Successful applicants across the 6 geo-political zones will be contacted via their email address.

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Study-In-Canada: 2022 University of Waterloo Arthur F. Church Entrance Scholarships

canada scholarship

The application for the undegraduate schoalsrhip in the university above is now open. We are accepting applications for the next academic year. So interested candidate.

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Scholarship Summary

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  • Reward: $10,000
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  • Scholarship Alerts: To receive Scholarship Alerts on

Scholarship Requirements

In order to be eligible to apply for the scholarship, applicants must note:

  • Scholarships are for Domestic (Canadian) and International prospective students.
  • Students enrolling to pursue an undergraduate degree program in the field of Computer Engineering, Systems Design Engineering and Mechatronics Engineering at the university.
  • Candidates must be completed a year 12 with a minimum of 70% marks or equivalent.
  • An applicant must have a strong and excellence academic background.
  • English Language Requirement: Candidates whose national language is not English may need to provide proof of English language proficiency by means of TOEFL or IELTS test.

Scholarship Duration and Reward

This sponsorship is enabled by Arthur F. Church to encourage excellent and exceptional students to attend Waterloo and assist their scholarly pursuits.



Required Documents

Documents that will be required include

Academic details,

 Language ability score or certificate scan, 

Copy of the passport or maybe a personal information card

Method of Application

Use the link below to apply for the Scholarship 

Interested candidates must first secure an undergraduate admission into the University.

Candidates’ selection will be done by the selection committee which will be automatic upon admission and dependent on the information supplied on the application form.

Deadline: Not Specified


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See what is unique about wearing our Summer contact lenses

summer contact lens
color variant to maintain your beauty

SUMMER Contact lenses, for your everyday use. For cosmetic and Prescription purposes. Change your eye color, change your World. Look different and express yourself by mere changing your eye color. Weather friendly and durable.  Summer contact lens comes in clear and colored forms. 

There could regular contact lenses out but with using summer contact lens we give you a patient/client specific care and attention. Our contact lenses come with these benefits although not limited to it:

  • Improved Viewing Ease: 

Pateients with summer contact lenses enjoy a wider viewing space and ease, this translates to increased efficiency at work and movement while wearing summer contact lens.

  • Better Eye Comfort: 

With the cutting edge nanotechnology, summer contact lenses are produced with high level biocompatible materials which leaves the patients/clients with 98% comfortability. There is less lens rotation, dislodgement and irritation.

  • Wider Visual Access: 

Summer contact lens offers you 98% access your normal visual space. This means that with summer , you tend to still see all corners of your environment .

  • Feeling Of Normalcy: 

With the lens materials being biocompatible, you earn the feeling of not even putting on anything. This makes you not be conscious of any disturbing material on the eyes.

  • Aesthetic Perks: 

This has been the killer nature of summer contact lenses. They come in beautiful designs and presentation upon wear. Summer lenses leave you with that desired glowing look which makes you attractive and unavoidably appealing to your peers and environment. Do you have an eye scar or unpleasant eye look? Summer contact lenses provide excellent masking look over it and leaves you with the desired outlook.

Are you a lover of contact lenses? Convert your spectacle prescription to a Summer contact lens now. 

Do you have eye problem, and you are tired of wearing glasses, Summer contact lenses got you.Our contact lenses come in various forms such as those with prescription for correction of vision errors, therapeutic lenses and cosmetic contacts lenses to enhance your looks and fit your task.

We are indeed unique with our care for you as we have Optometrists who can advise you on how to go about our Summer contact lenses.

Still looking for something more or you want to get this cutting age contact lens?

or call  08101793936 for more enquiries or purchases

We have your quality contact lens preservative solution available

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Elegant looks with our Summer contact lens


Colored Contacts: All About Colored Contact Lenses

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8 Things To Find Out About Acid Reflux Disorder For Sooner Relief and Management
Treatment Of Vaginal Fungal Infection

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Addax/NNPC scholarship

Addax Petroleum Development (Nigerian) Limited (APDNL), operator of NNPC/ADDAX Production Sharing Contract (PSC) in pursuance of its Corporate Social Responsibility invites suitably qualified applicants from its host communities to apply for the 2020/2021 Host Community Tertiary Scholarship Scheme.

Category of Award
Strictly for candidates from APDNL Host Communities

Carefully read the Requirement/Eligibility

Applications should be submitted on or before September 15, 2021.
The examination date will be communicated to shortlisted candidates only


  • Application for NNPC/Addax Host Community Scholarship is FREE.
  • SCHOLASTICA is the official platform for the NNPC/Addax Petroleum 2021 Host Community Scholarship
  • Beware of fraudulent websites when applying for the NNPC/Addax Host Community Scholarship online. Such websites may ask you to make some payments in the course of the application.
  • E-mail applications are NOT accepted. 
  • Any candidate found to have presented false documents will be disqualified or withdrawn at any level of the scholarship process. 
  • Only shortlisted candidates will be invited for the Remote Online Proctored CBT Examination 


To qualify for consideration, applicants MUST be:

  • Registered Full TIME undergraduates in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions
  • Certified 100 level students at the time of application (Only students admitted in 2020/2021 academic session)
  • For OND students, the award will be for 2 years only

NOTE: The following categories of students should not apply:

  • 200 level students and above
  • HND students
  • Current beneficiaries of similar Awards from other Companies and Agencies

Only Indigenes of APDNL Host Communities in Rivers, Akwa Ibom and Imo States SHOULD apply for the Host Communities Merit Award.
NOTE: The aptitude test will take place online using remote proctoring CBT application and the date of the test will be communicated only to shortlisted candidates. 

How to apply

Application is open to 100 level students only.

1. Before you start this application, ensure you have clearly scanned copies of the following documents

  • Passport photograph with white background not more than 3 months old (450px by 450px not more than 200kb)
  • School ID Card
  • O’level Certificate
  • Admission Letter
  • Birth Certificate
  • Proof of Local Government Area of Origin
  • JAMB Result

2. Ensure the documents are named according to what they represent to avoid mixing up documents during upload
3. Ensure you attach the appropriate documents when asked to upload
4. Ensure to provide valid Email and Phone Contact for effective communication 

To apply, follow the steps below:
1.    Click on “Apply Now” tab.
2.    Click on “Register Now” to create an account. 
3.    Proceed to your email box to activate your account 
4.    Click on to return to Scholarship site 
5.    Enter your registered email and password to upload your information. 
6.    Enter your personal information, National Identification Number (if available), educational information, other information and upload required scanned documents. 
7.    Ensure the name used in application matches the names on all documentation in same order. Upload a sworn affidavit or certificate if otherwise. 
8.    Ensure you view all documents after uploading, to eliminate errors during uploading. 
9.    When asked to upload photo, a passport photograph with a white background is preferable. 
10.  Recheck application information to avoid errors 
11.  Click “Apply Now” to submit information 
12.  You will receive an email and a sms that confirms your application was successful. 
13.  Return to, enter your Email and Password to download your profile and proceed to have your Head of Department sign the document. 
14.  Upload a scanned copy of the signed profile, this would be used for verification. 
15.  If National Identification Number (NIN) number was not available in step 6, to obtain your National Identification Number (NIN) 

  • Visit to register and learn more about the National Identity Number   
  • Click “Create Account” and fill in the required  fields   
  • Login with Email and Password to complete the form   
  • After completion, schedule a date for photo and finger print capture   
  • Visit any of the capture centres  to complete the registration process and obtain your National Identity Number   
  • You can also do your total registration at the NIMC office 

16. Return to and update application with National Identification Number (NIN) to ensure completion

Multiple applications attract a disqualification penalty from the Scholarship Board
Obtaining NIN is not compulsory in order to complete your application

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Statement of Purpose

Vitamin D, a remedy for colon cancer

vitamin D helps to remedy colon cancer

Vitamin D May Prevent Colon Cancer

Foods rich in vitamin D may help protect younger adults against carcinoma, researchers report.

While carcinoma is decreasing overall, cases among younger adults are on the increase. The trend increases with a decline in vitamin D intake from foods like fish, mushrooms, eggs, and milk.

There is growing evidence of a link between vitamin D and risk of carcinoma death, but little research on whether vitamin D intake is related to the danger of young-onset (before age 50) carcinoma.

“Because vitamin D deficiency has been steadily increasing over the past few years, we wondered whether this might be contributing to the rising rates” of carcinoma in younger people, 

The study found that vitamin D intake of 300 IU per day or more — roughly like three 8-ounce glasses of milk — was related to roughly a 50% lower risk of developing young-onset carcinoma (said study co-senior author Dr. Kimmie Ng, director of the Young-Onset Colorectal Cancer Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston).

Higher vitamin D intake was also related to a lower risk of probably precancerous colon polyps detected before age 50.

The findings are supported by data from quite 94,000 women who were a part of a long-term study that began in 1989. They were 25 to 42 years old when the study began.

The study — recently published online within the journal Gastroenterology — is the first to form the connection between vitamin D levels and risk of young-onset carcinoma, researchers said.

They didn’t find a big link between vitamin D intake and carcinoma risk after age 50, and that they said more study is required to work out if vitamin D provides greater protection against young-onset carcinoma than against it afterward.

“Our results further support that vitamin D could also be important in younger adults for health and possibly colorectal cancer prevention,” Ng said.

She said it’s critical to know the danger factors related to young-onset carcinoma so informed decisions about lifestyle and diet are often made and high-risk individuals can receive earlier screening.

The findings could lead to recommendations for higher vitamin D intake as a cheap addition to screening tests to stop carcinoma in adults under 50, researchers said.

Recent case-controlled studies have established that there is an inverse correlation between serum levels of vitamin D and the incidence of polyps and adenomas in the colon, consistent with the inverse correlation between dietary vitamin D3 intake or sunlight exposure and human colorectal cancer. This is significant because a large segment of the human population suffers from vitamin D3 insufficiency or deficiency, which is particularly prevalent among colon cancer patients. Indeed, numerous studies have suggested that higher vitamin D3 levels are associated with lower colon cancer incidence, reduced polyp recurrence, and better overall survival of colon cancer patients

Vitamin D and its analogs reduce the growth of colon cancer xenografts and inhibit tumorigenesis in several genetic models of intestinal cancer. In agreement, dietary initiation of colon cancer in rodents, a model of sporadic colon cancer, is prevented by supplementation with vitamin D3 and Ca

The Chemistry of Vitamin D

The biologically active form of vitamin D3,1α,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D3), is obtained by 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in the liver and 1α-hydroxylation in the kidney, liver, or other tissues. Hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3 by CYP27B1 yields the hormonally active form 1,25(OH)2D3, which is metabolized to less active metabolites by CYP24A1 . While the levels of CYP21B1 are reduced in some cancers, the levels of CYP24A1 are increased in cancer cells, which may contribute to the resistance of some tumors to 1,25D.

NSAIDs Match Steroids for Cataract Surgery Inflammation

prevent post cataract surgery inflammation

Prevent Cataract Post-operative inflammation

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) given as eye drops appear to work as well alone as they do in combination with steroids to prevent swelling of the macula after cataract surgery, researchers say.

The anti-inflammatory eye drops work just as well whether administered before or after surgery and are more effective than a sub-Tenon implant that elutes steroids, said Jesper Erichsen, MD, Ph.D., a researcher at Rigshospitalet Glostrup in Denmark.

“Maybe it would be preferable to have NSAID eye drops as the standard approach, and then you could add steroid eye drops if they are needed,”

Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema, a common complication of cataract surgery, can affect visual acuity. Researchers believe that it results from inflammation that disrupts the blood–ocular barrier and leads to the leakage of fluid into the retina.

To prevent it, surgeons prescribe anti-inflammatories, but there is no consensus on which ones to use, said Erichsen. “It would be a nice thing if there was a standard of care. But it seems to me that this differs quite a lot. “

Steroid eye drops have a long track record for this purpose and are considered more potent than NSAIDs, but they have been associated with increased intraocular pressure (IOP).

Because some patients have trouble administering eye drops, various slow-release depots and injections have been developed.

And some research has suggested that starting the prophylaxis before surgery is more effective.

To put various approaches to test, Erichsen and colleagues recruited 470 patients at Rigshospitalet Glostrup who were undergoing cataract surgery. They randomly assigned 94 patients to each of the five groups.

In the preoperative combination group — which served as the control group — the steroid and NSAID combination eye drops were started 3 days before surgery. In the postop combination group, the steroid and NSAID combination eye drops were started the day of surgery.

In the preop NSAID group, NSAID monotherapy was initiated 3 days before surgery. In the postop NSAID group, NSAID monotherapy was initiated on the day of surgery.

In the subtenon group, a subtenon depot of dexamethasone phosphate 0.5 mL was administered after surgery.

All eye drops were administered 3 times per day until 3 weeks after surgery. As the NSAID, the researchers used a ketorolac 0.5% solution. As the steroid, they used a prednisolone 1% solution.

At follow-up — 3 days after the surgery, 3 weeks after surgery, and 3 months after surgery — the researchers found no difference in mean central subfield thickness (CST) or corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) between the preop NSAID group and the groups that received preop or postop combination eye drops.

IOP decreased in all groups. After 3 days and 3 weeks, IOP was higher in both combination groups than in both NSAID monotherapy groups, but that difference had faded by 3 months.

More than half the subtenon group needed additional topical anti-inflammatory drops, suggesting that this approach is not sufficient, Erichsen said.

“This is an important study to further help optimize the postoperative regimen for cataract surgery,” said Francis Mah, MD, co-director of refractive surgery at Scripps Clinic in La Jolla, California.

“It adds more support toward not needing steroids, especially in this modern-day and age where we’re doing modern-day sophisticated cataract surgery, generating a lot less inflammation, ” he told Medscape Medical News.

Mah said he would have liked to see data on the outcomes as early as the first day after surgery.

Subtenon depots are not the best approach to dropless anti-inflammatory prophylaxis because they can cause red spots and discomfort, he explained. An intracanalicular dexamethasone insert and an intraocular dexamethasone injection are both less invasive, but there are challenges to reimbursement for these treatments in the United States, he noted.

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How to Clean Eye Cosmetics After a Pink Eye Infection| Facts about Eye cosmetics


Eye cosmetics among others have been one of the leading causes of ocular surface diseases. These eye make up products often used by females sometimes get into the eyes and lodge around the conjuctiva. This most times would cause the eye to reddish to pink in color with symptoms of pains and sometime s discharge. This is a condition called conjunctivitis or pink eye.

Pink Eye or Conjunctivitis
What are Eye Cosmetics
Eye Problems associated with Eye Cosmetics
How do you disinfect makeup from pink eye?
Do I need to wash everything after pink eye?
How to select eye makeup for cosmetics?

Pink Eye or Conjunctivitis

Eye infections from  eye cosmetics

 Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, is a common and contagious eye condition that can affect people of all ages. Whether it’s caused by a virus, bacteria, or allergies, the symptoms of pink eye can be uncomfortable and unsightly. To prevent the spread of the infection and to promote a swift recovery, it’s crucial to maintain good hygiene, and this includes cleaning your cosmetics. This post will guide  you how to clean eye cosmetics after a pink eye infection. It will guide you through the steps to safely clean your makeup and beauty tools after a pink eye infection.

Properly cleaning eye cosmetics and beauty tools after a pink eye infection is essential for preventing reinfection and maintaining good eye health. By following these steps, you can reduce the risk of spreading the infection to yourself and others while keeping your makeup collection safe and hygienic. Remember, when in doubt, it’s always best to consult with a eye care professional for advice on managing your pink eye infection and preventing its recurrence.

What are Eye Cosmetics

Eye cosmetics

Eye cosmetics, often referred to as eye makeup, encompass a wide range of beauty products and techniques designed to enhance and accentuate the eyes, making them appear more attractive and expressive. These cosmetics are used to create various eye looks, from subtle and natural to bold and dramatic, and have been an integral part of beauty and grooming practices for centuries.

Eye cosmetics typically include several essential products and tools:

1. Eyeshadow: Eyeshadows come in a variety of colors and textures, and they are applied to the eyelids to add dimension and color to the eyes. They can be matte, shimmering, or metallic, allowing for endless creative possibilities.

2. Eyeliner: Eyeliner is used to define the shape of the eyes and make them appear more prominent. It can be applied along the upper and lower lash lines in pencil, gel, liquid, or powder form.

3. Mascara: Mascara is applied to the eyelashes to darken, lengthen, and volumize them. It helps open up the eyes and make them appear more alert and captivating. 

4. Eyebrow Makeup: This includes products like eyebrow pencils, powders, gels, and pomades used to define and fill in the eyebrows, framing the eyes and enhancing their overall appearance.

5. False Eyelashes: False eyelashes are artificial lashes that can be applied to add length and volume to natural lashes for a more dramatic effect.

6. Eye Primer: Eye primer is a base product applied to the eyelids to create a smooth surface for eyeshadow and help it adhere better, prevent creasing, and increase its longevity.

Eye cosmetics are not only about enhancing one’s beauty but also a form of self-expression. People use eye makeup to match their outfit, reflect their personality, and experiment with various looks on different occasions. The artistry of eye makeup has evolved over time, and makeup enthusiasts often share their creations on social media platforms.

It’s important to note that while eye cosmetics can be a fun and creative way to enhance one’s appearance, proper care must be taken when applying and removing eye make ups to protect the delicate skin around the eyes. High-quality products and good hygiene practices are essential to ensure the health and safety of the eyes.

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Eye Problems associated with Eye Cosmetics

1.    Scratched Cornea: 

scratched cornea from eye cosmetics

Wearing eye make ups like the eye liner or mascara could pose a threat to the integrity of the cornea as well as other surrounding tissues. As an eye care practitioner, I have seen injured cornea resulting from the use of mascara applicator which marked off within the lower limits of the cornea. This can be mild and as well severe if the patients failed to visit the eye doctor immediately—- Dr Macson (OD, MNOA).

2.             Conjunctivitis: 

conjunctivitis from eye make up

commonly called pink eye, conjunctivitis is often the case in eye cosmetics complications. Sometimes this is due to the preservative contained in the eye drop such as benzalkonium chloride, which may cause conjunctival vessel congestions in some people. Although it is essential that this preservatives be found in drugs to prevent bacteria growth and infestation, it still pose minimal risk to hypersensitive tissues—–Dr Macson.

3.             Subconjunctival deposition:  

sub-conjunctival depositions from eye cosmetics

Cosmetics worn over the eyes sometimes keep collecting with the eyelids and inside the conjunctival cul de sac. Crumbs of mascara and other makeups collect in mass and form subconjunctival deposition. More so, these mass concretions collected over the years, get to scratch the cornea contribution to cornea scratch leading to irritation and discomfort. The concretions can get so thick and get stuck in the fibers of the conjunctival. At this point, surgery may be needed to remove them.Early intervention is often the best—- Dr Macson.

4.             Allergic reactions:

ocular allergy from eye cosmetics

Most commonly placed, allergic reactions in the form of allergic conjunctivitis, is often the case in most applications of eye cosmetics. This often presents in the form of redness, irritation and edema. WIth the immunity of the eye being reduced at this stage, there are higher risks of the eye being infected, hence in addition to treatment for allergic conjunctivitis, antibiotics eye drop is needed to be given to prevent secondary infection. Do well to read cosmetic labels to know what property that may be allergic to you——-Dr Macson.

5.             Dark circles

dark circles from eye cosmetics

Ladies would often use concealers to cover dark circles as a means of masking it. The area of skin around the eyes are thin and delicate, this makes them susceptible to absorbing chemical substances. Wrong application as well as prolonged use of eye cosmetics often would lead to dark circles around the eyes.

 How do you disinfect eye makeup from pink eye?

1. Isolate Contaminated Makeup

Pink eye which could be a sign of an infected eye, may indicate the wearing of a contaminated eye make up. It is necessary that you spot out from your make up kit which is contaminated and discard as supposed.

2. Wash Your Hands Thoroughly

Your hands are your easiest agents of application, ensure to wash with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds before using them on the face.

3. Disinfect Hard Cosmetic Containers

 Also carefully disinfecting the surfaces of your make up kits such as mascara, eyeliners , eyeshadows and brushes or applicators is ideal for maintaining better eye health while wearing eye cosmetics.

For hard, non-porous cosmetic containers like compacts r lipstick cases, follow these steps:

 Wipe Down Surfaces: Use a disinfecting wipe or a cotton ball soaked in isopropyl alcohol to wipe down the exterior surfaces of the containers. Ensure they are completely dry before use.

 Disinfect Brushes and Applicators

Cleaning makeup brushes, sponges, and other applicators is vital to prevent the spread of infection. Here’s how to disinfect these items:

Remove Excess Makeup: Gently shake or tap the brush to remove any loose makeup particles.

Soak in Disinfectant Solution: Fill a clean container with isopropyl alcohol (at least 70% alcohol content). Submerge the brush or applicator in the solution for at least 30 seconds.

Air Dry: After soaking, allow the brushes or applicators to air dry completely. Avoid using them until they are dry to prevent potential irritation to your eyes.

 4. Replace Unsanitary or Uncleanable Items

Cosmetics such as mascara and lipsticks that cannot be disinfected easily should be replaced as they would continue to harbor bacteria and other infectious agents.

 5 Avoid Sharing Makeup

 Sharing makeup is a common practice among friends and family, but it’s crucial to avoid sharing your cosmetics, especially during an eye infection. Pink eye is highly contagious, and sharing makeup can lead to cross-contamination. Also avoid sharing of eye wears such as eye glasses and contact lenses as they would increase the risk of cross-infection.

 6. Be Cautious with Allergies

For people who frequently experience red eyes due to allergies, wearing eye cosmetics may worsen the condition. Alternative options could be to use hypoallergenic and fragrance-free products to reduce their risk of exposure to further irritation.

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 Do I need to wash everything after pink eye?

Preventing the spread of infective agents from pink eye conjunctivitis is crucial and this is done by ensuring proper hygiene which include washing of the makeups from the face ,staying off close contacts with people and replacing all infected makeups.

When you have pink eye (conjunctivitis), it’s crucial to take steps to prevent the spread of the infection and to maintain good hygiene. While you don’t necessarily need to wash everything you own, there are specific items and practices you should consider to reduce the risk of reinfection or spreading the condition to others. Here’s a breakdown of what you should and shouldn’t do:

Wash or Clean

1. Hands: Regularly and thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds. Hand hygiene is one of the most critical steps to prevent the spread of pink eye.

2. Pillows and Bedding: If you’ve been in close contact with your pillows or bedding, especially if you’ve rubbed your eyes, consider washing them in hot water to reduce the risk of contamination.

3. Towels and Facecloths: Use a clean towel or disposable paper towels to dry your face. Wash these items in hot water after each use or use disposable paper towels.

4. Cosmetic Applicators: Clean and disinfect any makeup brushes or applicators that have come into contact with your eyes. It’s often safer to replace mascara and other makeup items used during the infection.

 5. Eyeglasses and Sunglasses: If you’ve been handling your eyeglasses or sunglasses, clean them with a gentle eyeglass cleaner or warm, soapy water.

How to select eye makeup for cosmetics?

eye make ups

The eyes are often referred to as the windows to the soul, and for good reason. They are one of the most striking and expressive features of the human face. To enhance the natural beauty of your eyes and create a stunning look, selecting the right eye makeup is essential. With the vast array of eye makeup products available today, it’s crucial to know how to choose the right ones for your unique style, eye shape, and skin tone. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the process of selecting eye makeup for cosmetics.

1. Identify Your Eye Shape

Before you start selecting eye makeup, it’s important to identify your eye shape. Different eye shapes require different makeup techniques to bring out their best features. Common eye shapes include:

Almond-shaped eyes:

almond eye shape

These are considered the most versatile and can pull off a wide range of eye makeup looks.

Hooded eyes:

hooded eye shape

Hooded eyes have a fold of skin that droops over the crease, making it important to focus on the outer corners to create depth.

Round eyes:

round eye shape

To elongate round eyes, it’s best to use makeup to create the illusion of an almond shape.

 – Deep-set eyes:

deep-set eyes

These eyes are set deeper into the skull, so use lighter shades to bring them forward.


monolids eye shape

Monolids have a single eyelid crease, and makeup can be used to add dimension and depth.

 Once you’ve identified your eye shape, you can tailor your eye makeup to enhance your natural beauty.

2. Choose Colors that Complement Your Skin Tone

 The right eye makeup colors can make your eyes pop and enhance your overall appearance. To select the best eyeshadow shades for your skin tone:

Fair skin: Soft pastels, cool tones like lavender and icy blues, and neutral shades work well.

Medium skin: Warm shades like browns, coppers, and golden tones complement medium skin beautifully.

Dark skin: Bold and vibrant shades like deep purples, rich blues, and jewel tones are stunning on dark skin.

 Remember, makeup rules are not set in stone. Feel free to experiment and find the colors that make you feel the most confident.

3. Choose the Right Type of Eye Makeup

Eye makeup comes in various forms, each serving a different purpose. Here are some common eye makeup products and their functions:

 – Eyeshadow: Adds color to your eyelids and enhances your eye shape.

 – Eyeliner: Defines the eyes, making them appear larger or more dramatic.

Mascara: Lengthens, darkens, and thickens your eyelashes, making your eyes stand out.

Eyebrow products: Fills in and shapes your eyebrows, framing your eyes beautifully.

Eyelid primer: Preps the eyelids for eyeshadow, ensuring it stays in place and appears more vibrant.

4. Consider Your Style and Occasion

 Your personal style and the occasion you’re getting ready for play a significant role in choosing your eye makeup. A smoky eye might be perfect for a night out, but it might be too intense for a daytime look. Soft, natural makeup works well for everyday wear, while bold and colorful eyeshadow can be fun for special occasions.

5. Invest in Quality Tools

To achieve a professional and polished eye makeup look, invest in high-quality makeup brushes and applicators. Good tools make the application smoother and more precise. Essential eye makeup brushes include a blending brush, an angled brush for eyeliner, and a flat eyeshadow brush.

6. Practice and Experiment 

Selecting eye makeup is not just about the products but also about your skills in applying them. Take the time to practice different eye makeup looks to discover what suits you best. There are countless tutorials available online to help you improve your makeup techniques.

Choosing eye makeup for cosmetics is a personal and creative endeavor. By identifying your eye shape, selecting complementary colors, and considering your personal style and occasion, you can create stunning eye makeup looks that enhance your natural beauty. Remember that practice makes perfect, and don’t be afraid to experiment with different techniques and colors to find the perfect eye makeup look for you. With a little knowledge and a lot of creativity, your eyes will truly become the windows to your soul, reflecting your unique personality and style.

How to choose correct cosmetics under eye concealer

Are you tired of dealing with under-eye circles, puffiness, or imperfections that just won’t go away? Choosing the right under-eye concealer can make all the difference in your makeup routine. In this guide, we’ll help you understand the key factors to consider when selecting the correct Cosmetics under-eye concealer to achieve a flawless look.

 1. Determine Your Skin Type:

Before you start your journey to find the perfect Cosmetics under-eye concealer, you should know your skin type. This knowledge is crucial because some Cosmetics offer concealer products tailored to different skin types. Whether you have dry, oily, or combination skin, there’s a concealer designed to cater to your specific needs. Understanding your skin type will help you choose a concealer that complements your complexion and provides the right level of hydration or oil control.

2. Identify Your Under-Eye Concerns:

 Cosmetics have a range of under-eye concealers, each with unique properties to address different concerns. It’s essential to identify your specific under-eye issues, such as dark circles, puffiness, fine lines, or discoloration. The concealer you choose should target these concerns effectively. For instance, if you’re dealing with dark circles, opt for a concealer with color-correcting properties. For puffiness, look for a concealer with ingredients like caffeine to reduce swelling.

3. Choose the Right Shade:

Selecting the correct shade is crucial to achieving a natural and flawless look. IT Cosmetics offers a wide range of shades to cater to various skin tones. When choosing your shade, it’s best to test the concealer in natural light and on the inner wrist or jawline. The right shade should seamlessly blend with your skin, providing excellent coverage without looking too light or too dark. 

4. Consider the Concealer Formula:

Cosmetics offers different under-eye concealer formulas, each with unique benefits. You can choose from liquid, cream, or stick concealers. The formula you select depends on your preference and skin type. Liquid concealer is great for those with dry skin, as it provides a hydrating, lightweight feel. Cream concealers offer more coverage and are suitable for those with more pronounced under-eye concerns. Stick concealers are perfect for on-the-go touch-ups.

5. Check for Hydrating Ingredients:

When choosing an under-eye concealer, look for hydrating ingredients like hyaluronic acid or collagen. These ingredients can keep the delicate skin around your eyes moisturized and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.

6. Longevity and Wear Time: 

Consider how long you need your concealer to last. If you’re looking for all-day coverage, opt for a long-wearing formula. Some cosmetics offers concealers with different wear times, so choose the one that best suits your daily activities and needs.

Choosing the correct cosmetics under-eye concealer is a crucial step toward achieving a flawless and natural look. By considering your skin type, identifying your specific under-eye concerns, selecting the right shade, choosing the appropriate formula, and checking for hydrating ingredients, you can confidently pick the ideal concealer for your needs.

How to use the thrive cosmetics brilliant eye brightener

Thrive Cosmetics Brilliant Eye Brightener is a versatile product designed to enhance and brighten your eyes. Whether you want to highlight your inner corners, accentuate your brow bone, or add a touch of shimmer to your lids, this multi-purpose eye brightener can do it all. Here’s how to use it effectively:

Step 1: Prepare Your Skin

Start with clean and moisturized skin. If you use an eyeshadow primer, apply it to ensure your eye makeup stays in place.

Step 2: Open and Prepare the Product

Unscrew the cap of your Thrive Cosmetics Brilliant Eye Brightener. Twist the base of the product to reveal the product inside. You can twist it clockwise to get more product and counter-clockwise to retract it.

Step 3: Apply as an Inner Corner Highlighter

One of the most popular uses of the Brilliant Eye Brightener is to highlight the inner corners of your eyes. This brightens your eyes and makes them appear more awake. To do this:

1. Gently twist the base to reveal a small amount of product.

2. Using the soft, rounded tip, apply the product to the inner corners of your eyes.

3. Blend it gently with your fingertip or a makeup brush for a seamless finish.

Step 4: Highlight Your Brow Bone

To highlight your brow bone and create a lifted look:

1. Twist the product to reveal a small amount.

2. Apply it just under your eyebrow, along your brow bone.

3. Use your fingertip or a brush to blend it out for a subtle glow.

Step 5: Use as an Eyeshadow Base or Highlight on the Lid

 You can also use the Brilliant Eye Brightener as an eyeshadow base or as a subtle lid highlight. To do this:

1. Twist the product to reveal the desired amount.

2. Apply it to your eyelids or the areas you want to highlight.

3. Gently blend with your fingertip or a brush.

Step 6: Set with Setting Spray or Powder 

If you want your eye brightener to last longer, you can set it with a setting spray or a translucent setting powder. This will help it stay in place throughout the day.

Step 7: Complete Your Eye Makeup 

After applying the Brilliant Eye Brightener, you can finish your eye makeup as desired. Apply eyeshadow, eyeliner, and mascara to complete your look.

Step 8: Seal the Product and Store Properly 

Once you’re done using the product, twist the base in the opposite direction to retract the product, and then securely replace the cap. Store it in a cool, dry place to prevent it from drying out or melting.

Thrive Cosmetics’ Brilliant Eye Brightener is a fantastic product to add a touch of radiance and brightness to your eyes. It’s easy to use and can quickly become a staple in your makeup routine for achieving a fresh and awakened look.



Do you know you need not bother yourself about the research topics to use for your project, seminar, etc.?

These are the current research topics in public health you can lay your hands on.

































Are you a youth who would love to serve as an intern at a Continental body? Do you want to broaden your knowledge and enhance your technical skills in an international environment? Would you like to gain more experience based on your personal and professional skills? Good news for you!

African Continental Free Trade is recruiting interns who have the tenacity to work diligently with them, gain more experience, and improve their skills. Read meticulously as everything concerning the requirements of getting this offer has been distilled down here.


This is the world’s largest free trade area, comprising the 55 countries of the African Union (AU) and eight (8) Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The general declaration of the AfCFTA is to construct a single continental market with a population of about 1.3 billion people and a combined GDP (Gross Domestic Products) of approximately US $3.4 trillion.

The aim is to enable the free flow of goods and services across the continent and boost the trading position of Africa in the global market. The AfCFTA is one of the forerunner projects of Agenda 2063 of the African Union (AU): The Africa We Want, the Au’s long-term development strategy for changing the continent into a global powerhouse. The AfCFTA would like to offer an opportunity to students who have sufficient knowledge and skills in relevant areas to work as interns (for a stipulated period) and gain some practical experience and international exposure.


The internship program is scheduled to get highly qualified and motivated students with diverse backgrounds into the Secretariat. They would work on projects correlated to the Strategic Orientations of the Secretariat and to help the corporate functions of the Secretariat.

 The main goal is to permit successful candidates to enhance their analytical and technical skills in an international environment. The program is chiefly educational and aims to expose participants (interns) to how AfCFTA operates at an early stage and strengthen their personal and professional skills.

This program provides an avenue for participants to gain exposure and some first-hand experience in various appropriate fields while learning in a multicultural environment.


1.  To broaden students’ knowledge depending on the projects carried out by AfCFTA.

2.  To offer a conducive learning platform to eligible intern students.

3.  To provide students, the opportunity to acquire hands-on experience, the work of one of the ambitious projects of the African Union

4.  To promote the AfCFTA to the public, especially the youth, and motivate them to work hard towards achieving their aims of working with International Organizations.


1.  You must be a national of a Member State of the African Union living in Ghana.

2.  Full–time final year students who are in the department of finance, accounting, audit, or related fields are also allowed.

3. Your school must be a recognized and accredited one either a public or private academy or institution.

4. You must be fluent in one of the African Union Official languages(French, English, Portuguese, Arabic, Kiswahili, and Spanish)

5.  Applicants must be available throughout the program which should last for 3 months(minimum) and a maximum of 6 months.

6.  Must have IT or technical skills which enhance your chance of getting this offer

7. Must be a computer literal who can handle Microsoft Office with ease.

8.  Applicants should be capable and willing to work in a multicultural and international team environment.

9.  Applicants should be able to uphold and adhere to the rules and values of the Institution for the duration of the program

9.  Female candidates are encouraged to apply.


1. Applications for admission to the AfCFTA Secretariat Internship Program are submitted online. Visit index.php

2.  If you do not have an account with this organization, you are advised to create an account with them first before you can sign up.

3.  Essential information about yourself should be provided.

4.  The documents to be submitted include:

(i) An encouragement letter which explains what they are expected to get from you after the training

(ii) A copy of a valid passport or identity card

(iii)  A letter of motivation

(iv) Current curriculum vitae (CV)

(v)  Proof of enrolment, preferably a letter of introduction from one’s University


After registration, an email will be sent to you confirming that your application has been successfully received.


The selection process or strategy consists of four main stages:

(i) Application and cover letter should be addressed to the Administration and Human Resources Directorate of the Secretariat

(ii)Pre-screening: all applications are screened, and eligible candidates are placed on a shortlist made available to AfCFTA Secretariat Directorates

(iii)Interview and/or Written Test:

There might be an interview or written test conducted by the hiring team

(iv)Offer letter:

 A candidate who is selected after the telephone interview and/or written test will receive an email with an internship offer letter from the AHRM Directorate


Verifiable references will be required.

However, for each period, confirmation of interns will be done, solely based on business needs. The maximum duration of the internship program is 6 months.


Applications must be submitted before or on October 31, 2023, by 11:59 p.m. (11h59 p.m. UTC).


(i)Internship Program: Finance, Accounting, Audit

(ii)Internship Program: Management, Business Administration, Human Resource Management, Communication.

(iii)Internship Program: Project Management, M &E, International Public Policy, International Relations

(iv)Internship Program: International Trade, International Trade Law, Law, Economic

(v) Internship Program: IT, Digital Application, Digital Policy

Visit the Official page of the AfCFTA Internship Program, index.php

The African Continental Free Trade Area – World Bank



Malaria has posed a serious threat to the lives of individuals residing in both tropical and subtropical areas where the disease is endemic, and the poor access to health services. The mortality rates especially in infants, toddlers, and other vulnerable groups keep accelerating, including the incidence rate as a result of no immunity to malaria.

Table of contents

What is Malaria?

Mode of Transmission

Who is at Risk of Malaria?

Symptoms of Malaria

Epidemiology of Malaria

Disease Burden of Malaria in Africa

Vaccine for Malaria as recommended by the World Health Organization

Other Strategies to Tackle Malaria Transmission



Malaria is a life-threatening disease and one of the contemporary issues of Public health that is spread by the vector (female Anopheles mosquito) to humans. It is not contagious, that is, it does not pass from person to person, hand-shaking, kissing, breastfeeding, or sexual intercourse. It is curable and preventable but if not treated on time causes severe problems that can lead to an early grave. In African countries, South Asia, parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Oceania, malaria is predominant and has caused lots of deaths.


 Malaria is a vector-borne disease that develops when an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites an individual, penetrating the skin and transmitting the pathogen, plasmodium parasites species into the body system. This infection begins to manifest in individuals after the transmission of sporozoites into the bloodstream. The movable sporozoites move to the liver where they live in the liver hepatocytes.

There, the parasites begin to hatch and multiply forming the liver schizonts that finally explode discharging thousands of merozoites that migrate to the bloodstream for 2-16 days after the first infection.

There are five malaria parasites which include: Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi.

The most harmful and commonly seen in African countries is Plasmodium falciparum. It is a deadly disease and can decrease one’s life span if the patient is not given immediate treatment to stop the disease from spreading inside the body. Almost all the people in Africa have suffered from P. falciparum, and even now, the incidence and prevalence rates keep skyrocketing.

 The P. vivax is mostly seen outside of sub-Saharan Africa. However, P. knowlesi happened to be a parasite that rarely occurs in humans.

It can also be obtained through blood transfusion, a situation where an infected person’s blood is not thoroughly scrutinized before being transfused to an individual not infected.

Another way it can be transmitted is by using sharps like contaminated needles and syringes, unsterilized lancets, etc used by infected persons.


Following the increased rate of malaria, the various groups are susceptible to malaria due to low immunity to this ailment. They are:

Infants and under 5 years children who have not developed a strong innate immunity to malaria.

Pregnant women if not treated on time when they have malaria tend to lead to stillbirths, abortion, and premature death of infants.

People living with HIV/AIDS

People who stay where malaria is not endemic and always travel from country to country without taking chemoprophylaxis are also predisposed to malaria.


The initial clinical manifestation of malaria starts about 10-15 days after being bitten by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The symptoms appear mild at first but an individual might not know the cause of the signs being experienced.

Mild symptoms like:



Loss of appetite


Fatigue or tiredness

Vomiting or nausea

Shivering or sweating

Body pains

Pale skin

When one notices some or all of these symptoms, it is paramount that the person seeks his or her doctor’s attention to confirm the cause of his symptoms either through diagnosis or physical examination by the doctor or any other health provider. Treatment should start immediately to prevent severe symptoms from rising.

Most of the severe symptoms include:

(i) Urine color becomes dark or bloody

(ii) Yellowing of the eyes and skin (jaundice)

(iii) Severe tiredness or fatigue

(iv) High rate of convulsions

(v) Delirium

(vi) Bleeding abnormally


As a result of the increased rate of malaria, it was stated that about 247 million people were infected with malaria in 2021 compared with the 2020 report which enunciated that 245 million cases were diagnosed with malaria, and about 619,000 deaths cases were reported according to the World Malaria Report in 2021. The continent having the highest population of malaria worldwide is Africa, as it was already an endemic disease over there.

 In 2021, the Region was home to approximately 95% of malaria cases and 96% of malaria deaths. Children under 5 years were the most susceptible group to malaria, and we’re dying as well.


Malaria is enormously spread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and Africa carries an excessively high share of the global malaria burden, including both high morbidity and mortality rates. In 2017, there were an estimated 219 million cases of malaria universally. Most were in the WHO African Region, with approximately 200 million cases, or 92% of multinational cases.  In 2017, five countries marked nearly half of all malaria cases globally. Four of these were in Africa: Nigeria (25%), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), and Uganda (4%).


World Malaria Day was held on the 25th of April 2023, on that day, it was announced that almost 1.5 million children had developed malaria because of their high susceptibility to it, and over a million had died of malaria in such countries like; Ghana, Kenya, and Malaysia, and they have received the first dose of a malaria vaccine, RTS, S/ASOI known as “Mosquirix”. Most countries have testified to the effectiveness of this drug but the supply is small compared to the unprecedented demand.

Following the high prevalence rate of malaria, children and vulnerable groups keep dying. WHO has recommended a new vaccine known as “R21/Matrix-MTmfor malaria prevention in updated advice on immunization. This vaccine has been directed to be given to children from 5 months to 3 years. It is an intramuscular vaccine. Injections are given through the deltoid region, over 3 dosing periods. It was developed by the University of Oxford and manufactured and scaled up by the Serum Institute of India (SII). This vaccine targets the plasmodium “sporozoite” which is the first form of the malaria parasite entering the human body.

Studies have shown that this vaccine contains Novavax’s Matrix-M “an adjuvant “that heightens the immune system response making it more potent and long-lasting. It has a high efficacy when given just before the high transmission season. The vaccine contains a low dose but can be produced in large quantities and at moderate cost.

However, it has not been dispensed to all countries because the vaccine is passing through different trials.

University of Oxford researchers and their members last year reported from a Phase IIb trial that a booster dose of R21/Matrix-M at one year following a primary three-dose regime sustained high efficacy against malaria, and continued to meet the World Health Organization Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap goal of a vaccine with at least 75% efficacy.

Again, following the 2021 results from the Phase-IIb trial reported that R21/Matrix-M illustrated a high-level efficacy of 77%. Recent data from the large phase III trial also show high levels of efficacy and a reassuring safety profile.

Gavi, the vaccine alliance has approved to provide both technical and financial support to roll out this malaria vaccine to 18 countries



According to the World’s Day Malaria theme, it is “time to deliver zero malaria, invest, innovate, and implement”. This means to achieve the malaria goal by 2030, the following measures should be adopted following the vaccine. They are:

  1. Use of mosquito nets in our various homes
  • Scrutinize blood to check for malaria infection before transfusing to another person.
  • Mosquito repellents are also important
  • Use coils and vaporizers
  • Cover up very well by wearing protective clothing
  • Use window screens


The World Health Organization aims to eliminate malaria from Africa by 2030, and they are creating strategic ways to ensure that these plans come to manifestation. The new vaccine has not been distributed to diverse countries because it is undergoing different trials.


National Institute of Health

National Institute of Malaria Research

National Library of Medicine, Nat. Rev.Microbiol Author manuscript available in PMC 2014 Mar.4 published in final edited form as Nat. Rev. Microbial. 2013 Dec.11(12); 849-862

Pubmed published by Odunayo Adebukola Temitope Fatunla et al. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2022.Odunayo Adebukola Temitope Fatunla et al. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2022.

WHO/Regional Office for Africa published on the 2nd of October, 2023

Fully-Funded PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah

Apply PhD position in Physics at University of Utah
PhD in Physics and Astronomy

Are you an aspiring physicist or astronomer with B.Sc and with dreams of pursuing a PhD? Congratulations on taking the first step towards a rewarding and intellectually stimulating journey! Applying for a PhD in physics and astronomy is a significant undertaking, and this comprehensive guide is designed to help you navigate the process successfully to apply for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah.

UniversityUniversity of Utah
Waiver CodeUUPANDA
GRE?Not Required

Instructions for Application Components

The Department of Physics & Astronomy requires all Ph.D. applicants to submit all application materials, including transcripts, online through the Slate application portal.  Please follow the below guidelines when preparing the required materials. See also application for PhD in accounting, machine learning, Immunology.

Apply here

Application Details for PhD in Physics and Astronomy at Utah

Enter all requested information in the online forms.  Below we provide clarification regarding certain questions, organized by the tab inside the portal to apply for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah.

Academic Program

Under “Academic Program,” please select “Physics PHD,” as that encompasses all Ph.D.s granted in the Physics & Astronomy Department.  Under “Area of Interest,” please indicate the research group in the department that you would currently most like to work within.  These categories conform directly to the faculty research groups described on our research pages.  Note that the Condensed Matter Experiment and Theory groups are listed together on the website, even though in the application Condensed Matter Theory is grouped under the “Theory” category.  Select the following options if you wish to express your current research interests this way:

  • Astroparticle – General: You are most interested in astroparticle science topics but do not have a strong preference for working in either of the 3 subgroups over the others.
  • Theory – General: You currently want to work on theory topics in physics and find both areas of condensed matter and high energy equally interesting and currently have no strong preference for either over the other.

We use your selection to match admissions with research group needs, and secondary interests are available for selection under the “College of Science” tab.  These selections are used as a guide, but the personal statement should describe the nature of your interests more precisely.  For example, you may not yet know which area of physics you’d like to specialize in, and that’s OK: Be sure to clearly explain that in your personal statement.

Read more on PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah here.

Also see more on International Postgraduate scholarships.

Academic History

Upload an unofficial transcript for every undergraduate institution you have attended.  Upon acceptance into the program, you will need to provide official transcripts, including evidence of Bachelor’s and (if applicable) Master’s degrees, to the Graduate School.  Admission into the program of PhD in Physics an Astronomy at the University of Utah is contingent on meeting these requirements.

College of Science

Select, if applicable, up to 2 other research areas of interest (see information under the Academic Program heading above for details).  Also indicate whether you would like to be considered only for the Ph.D. program, only for the postbacc program, or if you would like to be considered for both.  Please review the information on the postbacc program to see if it may be applicable to you.  The applicants for the two programs are assessed separately with differing metrics, and in general candidates will be suitable for only one program or the other.  However, strong applicants with non-traditional backgrounds may benefit from the postbacc program even though they would be competitive as a Ph.D. candidate; in this case, requesting to be considered for both programs would be appropriate.

Prerequisite Coursework

List all relevant physics and mathematics courses that you have taken in your previous studies that have prepared you for graduate studies in Physics and Astronomy at the University of Utah. Please list, for each course, the institution where you took it, term length (semester, quarter, etc.), its name/title, course number, number of credits, your grade, and the name/author(s) of the textbook used (in the additional details box).  The most important entry here is the textbook, since the other information is available in your transcript(s).  Include lower division undergraduate courses, upper division and/or graduate level general physics courses, and upper division and/or graduate level specialized courses (e.g., condensed matter physics, high energy physics, biophysics, etc).  Although not crucial, enter courses in each of these 3 groups together so that they will be listed together (if you forgot one, you do not need to delete courses to have it listed with the proper group—you can simply add it at the end). See guide on preparing travelling and studying abroad.

Additional Materials for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah

Additional Academic Materials: This is where you upload PDFs of your personal statement and curriculum vitae (CV).  These documents are your opportunity to tell us what makes you a great candidate for the Physics and Astronomy Ph.D. program at the University of Utah.  When preparing them, keep in mind our evaluation criteria, laid out in detail on this page.  It should be possible for reviewers to easily find evidence of that criteria in your statement and CV, as well as elsewhere in your application materials.  Do not be shy about repeating information in multiple places, or pointing to other documents for more details (e.g., in your personal statement, you might mention belonging to multiple student organizations but refer the reader to your CV for more details on those groups and your roles in them instead of describing them in the statement itself).

Personal Statement

Your Personal Statement should be a single essay (approximately 500 words or roughly 2 pages double-spaced) that addresses both of the following topics and speaks to the review criteria:

  1. What is something about physics or astronomy that you find exciting?
  2. How do your goals for graduate school match the opportunities offered by the research programs in the Department of Physics and Astronomy?

For the second topic, please reference the research program webpages to familiarize yourself with the available opportunities.  You do not need to identify specific faculty or groups you absolutely intend to work with, but if certain individuals or groups match your current interests well, this is the place to let us know and describe why that research particularly interests you. Read more on how to write a hook-neck winning statement of purpose for graduate studies.

Additional Academic Information: These prompts are optional; however, it can be helpful to us for you to list your undergraduate GPA computed on a 4.0 scale.  If the second prompt applies to you (non-completion of another graduate program), this text box is your opportunity to provide important information explaining your situation.  Even if this topic is discussed in your personal statement, it is beneficial to repeat/expand on it here.

Additional Financial Materials: The application fee waiver code is UUPANDA; with this code, you should not have to pay the application fee upon submission.  We do not want our applicants to pay a fee, but the graduate school requires one, so the fee waiver code is available to all.

Additional Immigration Materials: If you have a document with an English proficiency score certification (for more details, click here), feel free to attach it as an additional page to the scan of your passport and upload both as a single document here.

Recommendations for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah

Please provide contact information for 3-5 individuals who have agreed to provide a recommendation letter on your behalf.  An email will automatically be sent to the provided email address once the Recommender form is complete and “Send to Recommender” is clicked.  For the “Relationship” field, describe the capacity in which the recommender knows you, e.g., you were a student in their class, they were a supervisor for an internship or research project, etc.  It is good practice to follow up with the recommender to make sure they got the email and know the deadline that their letter needs to be submitted by (which will not be stated in the email that goes to them).  You can return to this page to check the status of letter uploads and remind letter writers as the deadline approaches.  For the letters to maximally benefit your application, you should waive access to the submitted letters. Do well to submit your application for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah on time.

Review and Submit application for PhD position open for Physics and Astronomy at University of Utah

On the final Review tab, any errors (almost certainly a list of unanswered but required fields) will be indicated.  When no errors are found, you will be able to submit the application—once submitted, you will not be able to change any responses or documents provided through the online application.  If information needs to be updated after you have submitted (but before the application deadline has passed), please contact the Graduate Coordinator at [email protected].

Click to Apply

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Postgraduate positions open for international PhD students 2023/2024.

Phd application

The professors below and the research labs are constantly recruiting students to join their lab for summar and fall 2024. Access the photo credits below to see the openings and do to draft a cold email to the professors for postgraduate positions open for PhD students 2023/2024. The programs below are in Marketing, human ecology, systems, industrial engineering, accounting, immunology, machine learning.

Programs below include:

Marketing PhD program, University of Texas.

Prof. Richard Gretz

salary : $25,000 per annum, visit department for more info.

Human Ecology PhD program, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Assoc. Prof. Kristin Litzelman

Register for information session: Link

Systems and Industrial Engineering PhD progran, University of Arizona.

Assoc. Prof. Yue Wang

Email: [email protected]

Accounting PhD, University of Arkansas

Assoc. Prof. Fellipe Raymundo

For More Info: Link

PhD in Immunology & Exercise Physiology, University of Houston.

Ass. Prof. Heather Caslin

For more info: Link1, Link2

PhD in Machine Learning and Graph signal processing, Marquette University.


Contact the department and follow the professor on Linkedin for more info.

PhD in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Clemson University.

Grad. Asst. Vishnu Saketh Jella , for Research group.

Contact Vishnu via linkedin, or email: [email protected]

Consider Exciting Postgraduate Positions for PhD Students in Various Fields: 2023/2024 Openings

Are you an aspiring researcher eager to delve deep into your chosen field and contribute to groundbreaking discoveries? If so, you’re in luck! The year 2023 brings with it a host of exciting postgraduate positions for PhD students in diverse disciplines. Whether your passion lies in marketing, human ecology, systems, industrial engineering, accounting, immunology, or machine learning, there’s an opportunity waiting for you. In this blog post, we’ll explore some of the exciting prospects available for budding scholars in these fields for the 2023/2024 academic year.

1. Marketing: Shaping the Future of Consumer Behavior

Are you intrigued by consumer behavior, market trends, and the psychology of marketing? Pursuing a PhD in Marketing could be your ticket to understanding and influencing consumer choices. You’ll have the chance to work on cutting-edge research projects, exploring topics like digital marketing, branding, consumer decision-making, and more. Join a dynamic research community and help shape the future of marketing strategies.

2. Human Ecology: Balancing People and the Environment

Human ecology is all about understanding the intricate relationship between humans and their environment. PhD students in this field have the unique opportunity to contribute to solutions for some of our planet’s most pressing challenges. You could explore sustainable urban planning, environmental policy, resource management, or even delve into the complexities of human-nature interactions in a changing world.

3. Systems and Industrial Engineering: Optimizing Complex Systems

For those with a passion for problem-solving and optimization, a PhD in Systems and Industrial Engineering is an ideal choice. Dive into research areas like supply chain management, process optimization, and logistics, and develop innovative solutions for industries ranging from manufacturing to healthcare. You’ll become a specialist in making systems run efficiently and effectively.

4. Accounting: Unraveling Financial Mysteries

Accounting may seem straightforward, but the field is evolving rapidly, driven by advances in technology and globalization. As a PhD student in accounting, you’ll explore the intricacies of financial reporting, auditing, and taxation while addressing emerging challenges like sustainability reporting and blockchain technology.

5. Immunology: Fighting Diseases at the Cellular Level

Immunology is at the forefront of medical research, and a PhD in this field offers you the opportunity to unlock the secrets of the immune system. Dive into projects related to infectious diseases, cancer immunotherapy, or vaccine development. Your research could have a profound impact on human health, helping to combat diseases that affect millions worldwide.

6. Machine Learning: Shaping the Future of Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning is revolutionizing industries across the board, from healthcare to finance to entertainment. Pursuing a PhD in machine learning means contributing to the development of intelligent systems that can learn and adapt. Whether you’re interested in natural language processing, computer vision, or reinforcement learning, there are endless possibilities for groundbreaking research in this field.

In conclusion, the year 2023 offers an array of postgraduate positions for PhD students across diverse disciplines. These opportunities provide a chance to immerse yourself in cutting-edge research, expand your knowledge, and make a meaningful contribution to your chosen field. If you’re passionate about marketing, human ecology, systems and industrial engineering, accounting, immunology, or machine learning, start exploring the exciting PhD programs available for the 2023/2024 academic year. Your journey towards becoming a leading expert in your field begins here!

Do well to contact the faculties and professors in charge to begin your journey to Postgraduate positions open for PhD students 2023/2024.

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Clarendon Fund Scholarships at University of Oxford

claredon scholarship

Oxford University Press
Masters/PhD Degrees

Deadline: 5 Jan/19 Jan 2024 (annual)
Study in:  UK
Course starts October 2024

Brief description:

The Clarendon Fund is a major graduate scholarship scheme at the University of Oxford, offering around 140 new scholarships every year. Clarendon Scholarships are awarded on the basis of academic excellence and potential across all degree-bearing subjects at graduate level at the University of Oxford.

Host Institution(s):

University of Oxford in United Kingdom

Level/Field(s) of study:

All degree-bearing courses at graduate level in any subject are eligible. This encompasses all full-time and part-time master’s and all DPhil courses. A list of all the graduate courses offered by the University of Oxford can be found on the Courses page.

Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma courses are not eligible for this scholarship.

Number of Awards:

Approximately 140 scholarships are offered every year.

Target group:

All applicants from any country

Scholarship value/inclusions/duration:

All Clarendon Scholarships cover tuition and college fees in full.

Scholars on a full-time course receive a generous annual grant for living costs – which will be at least £17,668 for 2023-24. Scholars on a part-time course will receive a study support grant, to assist with non-fee costs. Scholars on a part-time course will receive a study support grant, to assist with non-fee costs.

The scholarships are normally offered for the full period for which you are liable to pay tuition fees to the University, which is usually the same as the length of your course.

Recently Searched Contents:

Eligibility/Selection Criteria:

Clarendon Scholarships are awarded on the basis of outstanding academic merit and potential to graduate students from all around the world. Scholarships are tenable in all subject areas and are open to candidates who apply for a new master’s or DPhil course by the January admissions deadline.

See the selection criteria on the side panel

Application instructions:

If you apply for a full- or part-time master’s or DPhil course at Oxford by the December or January deadline for your course, you will automatically be considered for a Clarendon Scholarship. You do not need to submit any additional documents specifically for the Clarendon Scholarships – there is no separate scholarship application form.   You do, however, need to apply before the December or January deadline (5 or 19 January 2024) for your course if you wish to be considered for the scholarship.

It is important to visit the official website (link found below) for detailed information on how to apply for this scholarship.


Official Scholarship Website:

For more update, connect with us on:

join our  WhatsappFacebook and Telegram community

Eligibility Criteria:

As a guideline, applications are assessed against the following criteria:

Outstanding academic record

An excellent academic record is essential. The majority of successful scholars usually have at least a first class honours degree or its equivalent. For example a GPA score of at least 3.7, if the mark if out of 4, noting that a lot of the Clarendon scholars achieve higher than this score. Or an applicant must have an outstanding academic record at Master’s level, noting that an exceptional Master’s degree can compensate for a moderate first degree performance. Requirements may vary between disciplines and from year to year depending on the strength of the field. Other evidence of high academic achievement may include individual marks on student transcripts; evidence of previous university prizes or awards; information on your overall position within your cohort; and publications (if applicable).

Future potential and aptitude

Particular consideration is given to an applicant’s future academic potential and aptitude of the proposed course of study. This may be assessed by reviewing references and research proposals to determine evidence of an applicant’s aptitude for research, and the likelihood of contributing significantly to the field of study.

Student motivation

This is assessed through evidence of the applicant’s commitment to the proposed course as well as evaluation of the personal statement and the referees’ reports.

Strategies for Effective Blood Pressure Control to Minimize the Risk of Falls in Post-Stroke Patients


In the realm of post-stroke care, where patients face a complex web of health challenges, the importance of managing blood pressure effectively cannot be overstated. This critical aspect of recovery holds the potential to significantly impact the overall well-being and safety of individuals who have experienced a stroke. In this context, we delve into the intricate interplay between “Strategies for Effective Blood Pressure Control” and the pressing concern of “Minimizing the Risk of Falls” in post-stroke patients.

risk factors of stroke

A stroke, a life-altering event, often leaves individuals vulnerable to a myriad of health issues, with the risk of falls looming large. Our focus here is on the promising prospect that lies in achieving better blood pressure control after a stroke. The keyword “reduce” takes center stage as we explore how meticulous management of blood pressure levels post-stroke may offer a potential lifeline, reducing the perilous risk of falls. Join us on this journey as we uncover the strategies, research, and insights that underpin this crucial facet of post-stroke care, shedding light on the intricate dynamics between blood pressure and fall prevention.

Let’s break down the statement:

  1. “Better blood pressure control”: This refers to the management and regulation of blood pressure levels in individuals who have had a stroke. Controlling blood pressure is a crucial aspect of post-stroke care to prevent complications.
  2. “After a stroke”: This indicates the specific time frame being considered, which is after someone has experienced a stroke. Stroke is a medical condition that can have various consequences, and post-stroke care is essential to minimize risks.
  3. “May reduce”: This is the key keyword in the statement. “May” suggests that there is a possibility or potential for a specific outcome. In this case, the outcome is the reduction of the risk of falling.
  4. “Risk of a fall”: This is the outcome being discussed. Falls can be detrimental, especially for individuals who have had a stroke, as they can lead to further injuries and complications.

So, the statement suggests that if blood pressure is effectively controlled in individuals after they have experienced a stroke, there is a possibility that the risk of falling could be reduced. However, it’s important to note that the use of “may” indicates that this is not a guarantee but rather a potential benefit that requires further research and clinical consideration.

Post-stroke care is a complex and critical phase in the journey of stroke survivors. Stroke, a sudden disruption of blood flow to the brain, can have devastating consequences, often leading to physical and cognitive impairments. One significant challenge faced by post-stroke patients is the management of blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, or hypertension, is not only a risk factor for stroke but also a potential complication after a stroke. It’s in this context that we delve into the strategies for effective blood pressure control to minimize the risk of falls in post-stroke patients.

Understanding the Post-Stroke Scenario

Before we delve into strategies for blood pressure control, let’s understand the post-stroke scenario. Surviving a stroke is a victory in itself, but it’s just the beginning of a challenging road to recovery. Stroke survivors often experience a range of physical and cognitive impairments, such as muscle weakness, balance issues, and memory problems. These factors increase the risk of falls, which can result in further injuries and complications.

The Link Between Blood Pressure and Stroke

To appreciate the significance of blood pressure control, we must first acknowledge the intricate relationship between blood pressure and stroke. High blood pressure is a leading cause of strokes, as it can damage blood vessels over time, making them more susceptible to rupture or clot formation. However, blood pressure management doesn’t stop once a stroke occurs.

Post-Stroke Blood Pressure Management

After a stroke, blood pressure management becomes a critical component of post-stroke care. The brain relies on a steady supply of oxygen and nutrients through blood circulation. When blood pressure is too high, it can strain blood vessels in the brain, potentially leading to a recurrence of stroke or other complications. Conversely, blood pressure that’s too low can deprive the brain of necessary oxygen, impairing recovery.

Strategies for Effective Blood Pressure Control

Now, let’s explore the strategies for effective blood pressure control in post-stroke patients, with a specific focus on how this can help minimize the risk of falls:

  1. Medication Management: Many post-stroke patients are prescribed medications to regulate blood pressure. Adhering to the prescribed medication regimen is crucial. It’s essential to take medications as directed and to communicate any side effects or concerns with healthcare providers.
  2. Lifestyle Modifications: Lifestyle plays a significant role in blood pressure control. Encouraging post-stroke patients to adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle can have a profound impact. This includes a balanced diet low in sodium, regular physical activity, stress reduction techniques, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
  3. Regular Monitoring: Regular blood pressure monitoring is essential. Healthcare providers should monitor blood pressure during follow-up visits, but patients can also track it at home using home blood pressure monitors. This empowers individuals to be proactive in their care.
  4. Physical Therapy: Physical therapy is a vital component of post-stroke rehabilitation. It helps improve muscle strength, balance, and coordination. Enhanced physical fitness can reduce the risk of falls, indirectly aiding in blood pressure control.
  5. Fall Prevention Programs: Fall prevention programs specifically designed for post-stroke patients can make a significant difference. These programs often include exercises to improve balance and coordination, as well as strategies for making the home environment safer.
  6. Patient Education: Educating post-stroke patients about the importance of blood pressure control and fall prevention is crucial. When individuals understand the risks and benefits, they are more likely to actively engage in their care.
  7. Individualized Care Plans: Stroke recovery is not one-size-fits-all. Healthcare providers should develop individualized care plans that consider each patient’s unique needs, medical history, and risk factors. This personalized approach can optimize blood pressure control and fall prevention.
  8. Multidisciplinary Approach: Effective blood pressure control and fall prevention often require a multidisciplinary approach. This means that various healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists, work together to provide comprehensive care.

The Impact of Effective Blood Pressure Control on Fall Prevention

Now that we’ve explored these strategies for effective blood pressure control, let’s examine the direct impact on fall prevention in post-stroke patients.

1. Improved Balance and Coordination: High blood pressure can impair blood vessel function, potentially affecting the brain’s ability to regulate balance and coordination. By controlling blood pressure, we can mitigate this risk, making falls less likely.

2. Enhanced Muscle Strength: Medications and physical therapy can help strengthen muscles, improving mobility and stability. This, in turn, reduces the risk of falls, which can have severe consequences for post-stroke patients.

3. Medication Side Effects: Some blood pressure medications can have side effects like dizziness or fainting. Proper medication management and monitoring can help mitigate these side effects, decreasing the likelihood of falls.

4. Cognitive Function: Hypertension can also impact cognitive function. Post-stroke patients who effectively control their blood pressure may experience better cognitive outcomes, reducing the likelihood of errors or lapses in judgment that can lead to falls.

What are the interventions for preventing falls in people post stroke?

Falls are a significant concern for individuals who have experienced a stroke. The aftermath of a stroke often includes physical impairments, such as muscle weakness and balance issues, which can increase the risk of falls. However, with the right interventions and strategies, it is possible to reduce this risk and improve the overall quality of life for post-stroke individuals. In this article, we will explore various interventions and techniques designed to prevent falls in people post-stroke.

Understanding the Risk Factors

Before delving into the interventions, it’s essential to understand the risk factors that contribute to falls in post-stroke individuals:

  1. Muscle Weakness: Stroke survivors often experience muscle weakness, particularly on one side of the body. This imbalance can make it challenging to maintain stability.
  2. Impaired Balance: Stroke can disrupt the body’s ability to maintain balance, increasing the risk of falling, especially when standing or walking.
  3. Visual and Sensory Impairments: Stroke can lead to vision problems or sensory deficits, which can affect a person’s spatial awareness and perception of the environment.
  4. Cognitive Impairment: Some stroke survivors may experience cognitive impairments, affecting their decision-making and awareness of potential fall hazards.
  5. Medication Side Effects: Medications prescribed after a stroke can sometimes cause dizziness or lightheadedness, making individuals more prone to falls.

Now, let’s explore the various interventions and strategies that can help mitigate these risk factors and prevent falls in people post-stroke.

  1. Physical Therapy:
  • Physical therapy plays a pivotal role in improving muscle strength, balance, and coordination in stroke survivors.
  • Therapists can design customized exercise programs to target specific weaknesses and help individuals regain their mobility.
  1. Occupational Therapy:
  • Occupational therapists focus on enhancing a person’s ability to perform daily activities, such as dressing, cooking, and bathing.
  • They can recommend adaptive strategies and equipment to make these tasks safer and more manageable.
  1. Home Modifications:
  • Assessing the home environment is crucial. Simple modifications, such as installing grab bars in the bathroom and removing tripping hazards, can significantly reduce the risk of falls.
  1. Assistive Devices:
  • Devices like canes, walkers, and orthotic braces can provide support and stability, making it easier for post-stroke individuals to move around safely.
  • Depending on the patient’s assessed risk level, healthcare providers may implement various safety interventions, such as:
    • Bed Alarms and Chair Alarms: These alarms are designed to alert healthcare staff when a patient attempts to get out of bed or a chair without assistance.
    • Hip Protectors: These padded garments are worn to reduce the risk of hip fractures in the event of a fall.
    • Non-Slip Footwear: Providing patients with non-slip socks or shoes can help improve their stability when walking.
    • Bedside Rails and Grab Bars: Installing bedside rails on beds and grab bars in bathrooms can assist patients with balance and provide support during transfers.
    • Floor Mats: Placing floor mats or cushions near the bedside or in areas where patients may fall can reduce the impact of a fall and prevent injuries.
  1. Medication Review:
  • Regularly reviewing and adjusting medications with a healthcare provider can help minimize side effects that may contribute to dizziness or lightheadedness.
  1. Balance Training:
  • Balance training exercises, like tai chi or yoga, can improve proprioception and enhance overall stability.
  1. Vision and Sensory Rehabilitation:
  • Addressing vision and sensory impairments through specialized therapy or corrective devices can improve spatial awareness and reduce fall risks.
  1. Education and Awareness:
  • Providing education to both the individual and their caregivers about fall risks and prevention strategies is essential.
  • Encouraging the use of appropriate footwear and teaching strategies to get up safely after a fall can be valuable.
  1. Group Exercise and Social Support:
  • Engaging in group exercise classes or support groups can boost motivation and reduce isolation, encouraging post-stroke individuals to stay active and maintain their balance.
  1. Regular Check-Ups:
    • Scheduled check-ups with healthcare professionals can help monitor and manage any changes in health that may affect fall risk.

Preventing falls in people post-stroke requires a multifaceted approach that addresses the specific risk factors associated with stroke-related impairments. While it may not always be possible to completely eliminate the risk of falls, implementing the interventions and strategies discussed in this article can significantly reduce that risk and improve the overall quality of life for individuals on their road to recovery.

Stroke survivors, their families, and healthcare professionals must work together to create a safe and supportive environment that promotes independence and reduces the fear of falling, ultimately allowing post-stroke individuals to lead more fulfilling lives.


In the complex journey of post-stroke care, effective blood pressure control emerges as a pivotal factor in minimizing the risk of falls. This interplay between blood pressure management and fall prevention highlights the holistic approach needed to ensure the well-being and safety of post-stroke patients. By embracing a combination of medication management, lifestyle modifications, regular monitoring, physical therapy, fall prevention programs, patient education, individualized care plans, and a multidisciplinary approach, healthcare providers can empower stroke survivors to regain control of their lives, reducing the risk of falls and enhancing their overall quality of life. In this endeavor, we strive for a future where post-stroke patients can enjoy a safer and more fulfilling existence on their path to recovery.

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Best Practice Materials for IELTS tests preparation 2023


The best materials for ielts materials are those from either Cambridge, British Council, or the IDP website. However, herein are compiled materials from Cambridge books for your best practice materials for IELTS tests preparation 2023. Carefully study them for maximum benefits. More so, below them are a few useful video contents from youtube which we have carefully filtered to guide you.

IELTS tests can be either IELTS Academics or Ielts General ( Used mostly for Canadian Permanent residency). The tests are in 4 sections: Reading, Speaking, listening, and writing.

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Cambridge 16

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Find useful videos below:

The videos span across the four different sections of the tests which are





Band 9 speaking
My best Video for Ielts prep..

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8 Step-by-step guide on how to write a Statement of purpose (SOP) that is not less than 700 words.

statement of purpose

When writing a statement of purpose (SOP) for universities in the US, it is important to follow certain guidelines to ensure your document is comprehensive and persuasive.Read the Step-by-step guide on how to write an Statement of purpose SOP that is not less than 700 words.

1. Introduction (Approximately 100 words):

  1. Introduction (Approximately 100 words):
  • Start with an engaging opening sentence to capture the reader’s attention.
  • Introduce yourself and provide a brief background about your academic journey.
  • Clearly state your intention of applying to the specific university and program.

2. Academic Background and Interests (Approximately 200 words):

  1. Academic Background and Interests (Approximately 200 words):
  • Discuss your previous academic achievements, including your undergraduate degree.
  • Highlight relevant coursework, research projects, or internships that have shaped your interest in your chosen field of study.
  • Explain your specific research interests and how they align with the program you are applying to.
  • Mention any specific faculty members, research centers, or resources at the university that attract you and align with your interests.

3.Research Experience (Approximately 200 words):

  1. Research Experience (Approximately 200 words):
  • Describe any research experience you have gained, including the research question, methodology, and outcomes of your projects.
  • Highlight any publications or conference presentations resulting from your research.
  • Emphasize the skills and techniques you have acquired during your research experience that are relevant to your proposed area of study.

4. Professional Experience (Approximately 150 words):

  1. Professional Experience (Approximately 150 words):
  • Share any professional experiences, internships, or work-related projects that have enhanced your skills and knowledge in your chosen field.
  • Explain how these experiences have contributed to your academic and career goals.

5. Extracurricular Activities and Leadership Roles (Approximately 150 words):

  1. Extracurricular Activities and Leadership Roles (Approximately 150 words):
  • Discuss any extracurricular activities, volunteer work, or leadership roles you have undertaken.
  • Explain how these experiences have helped you develop important skills such as teamwork, communication, and leadership.

6. Why this University? (Approximately 100 words):

  1. Why this University? (Approximately 100 words):
  • Explain why you are specifically interested in attending the university you are applying to.
  • Discuss the university’s reputation, faculty expertise, research opportunities, or unique programs that resonate with your academic and career goals.
  • Avoid generic statements and show that you have done thorough research on the university.

7. Future Goals (Approximately 100 words):

  1. Future Goals (Approximately 100 words):
  • Clearly articulate your short-term and long-term goals in your chosen field.
  • Explain how the program you are applying to will help you achieve those goals.
  • Showcase your enthusiasm for making a positive impact in your field of study.

8. Conclusion (Approximately 50 words):

  1. Conclusion (Approximately 50 words):
  • Summarize your key points briefly.
  • Reiterate your strong motivation and enthusiasm for the program.
  • Express your gratitude for the opportunity to apply and for the committee’s consideration.

Remember to proofread your SOP thoroughly and ensure it adheres to the specific guidelines provided by the university. It is crucial to tailor your SOP for each individual university and program to demonstrate your genuine interest and compatibility.

Carefully read and understand the 8 Step-by-step guide on how to write an Statement of purpose SOP that is not less than 700 words.

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