Do you know why most men nowadays get to suffer from prostate disease? Are you aware that the number of men getting attacked by prostate cancer and enlargemnet is on the increase? Before now prostate disease used to be an age related disease of the old people , but most likely now the curve is turning, a few middle aged men are getting to suffer from it. What could be the cause, are you safe, what do you do that puts you at early risk, can frequent sex keep you safe from it?
Lets find out . But first lets see what prostate cancer and enlargement are ; and how do they differ and present.
Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer cells, and can then spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about cancer and how it starts and spreads, see What Is Cancer?
Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow out of control. The prostate is a gland found only in males. It makes some of the fluid that is part of semen.
Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.
The prostate is below the bladder (the hollow organ where urine is stored) and in front of the rectum (the last part of the intestines). Just behind the prostate are glands called seminal vesicles that make most of the fluid for semen. The urethra, which is the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body through the penis, goes through the center of the prostate.
The size of the prostate can change as a man ages. In younger men, it is about the size of a walnut, but it can be much larger in older men.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.
Prostate cancer that’s detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland — has the best chance for successful treatment.
Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages.
Prostate cancer that’s more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:
- Trouble urinating
- Decreased force in the stream of urine
- Blood in the urine
- Blood in the semen
- Bone pain
- Losing weight without trying
- Erectile dysfunction
When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.
Types of prostate cancer
Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen).
Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:
- Small cell carcinomas
- Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas)
- Transitional cell carcinomas
These other types of prostate cancer are rare. If you are told you have prostate cancer, it is almost certain to be an adenocarcinoma.
Some prostate cancers grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some younger men) who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases, neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it.
It’s not clear what causes prostate cancer.
Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate develop changes in their DNA. A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die.
The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue. In time, some abnormal cells can break away and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include:
- Older age. Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. It’s most common after age 50.
- Race. For reasons not yet determined, Black people have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do people of other races. In Black people, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.
- Family history. If a blood relative, such as a parent, sibling or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
- Obesity. People who are obese may have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared with people considered to have a healthy weight, though studies have had mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to be more aggressive and more likely to return after initial treatment.
Complications of prostate cancer and its treatments include:
- Cancer that spreads (metastasizes). Prostate cancer can spread to nearby organs, such as your bladder, or travel through your bloodstream or lymphatic system to your bones or other organs. Prostate cancer that spreads to the bones can cause pain and broken bones. Once prostate cancer has spread to other areas of the body, it may still respond to treatment and may be controlled, but it’s unlikely to be cured.
- Incontinence. Both prostate cancer and its treatment can cause urinary incontinence. Treatment for incontinence depends on the type you have, how severe it is and the likelihood it will improve over time. Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery.
- Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or its treatment, including surgery, radiation or hormone treatments. Medications, vacuum devices that assist in achieving erection and surgery are available to treat erectile dysfunction.
You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:
- Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.
Whether you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proved. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.
- Choose healthy foods over supplements. No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing your risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.
- Exercise most days of the week. Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you’re new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.
- Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor for help creating a plan for healthy weight loss.
- Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer. If you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, you and your doctor may consider medications or other treatments to reduce the risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer. These drugs are used to control prostate gland enlargement and hair loss.
However, some evidence indicates that people taking these medications may have an increased risk of getting a more serious form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor.
Frequent SEX: Does it prevent you from prostate cancer?
At this time, there is no conclusive evidence that frequent ejaculation reduces the risk of prostate cancer.
Some studies have suggested that men with a higher frequency of ejaculations may have a slightly lower risk of prostate cancer. However, this difference appears to be very small. Other studies haven’t supported this conclusion.
Possible pre-cancerous conditions of the prostate
Some research suggests that prostate cancer starts out as a pre-cancerous condition, although this is not yet known for sure. These conditions are sometimes found when a man has a prostate biopsy (removal of small pieces of the prostate to look for cancer).
Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)
In PIN, there are changes in how the prostate gland cells look when seen with a microscope, but the abnormal cells don’t look like they are growing into other parts of the prostate (like cancer cells would). Based on how abnormal the patterns of cells look, they are classified as:
- Low-grade PIN: The patterns of prostate cells appear almost normal.
- High-grade PIN: The patterns of cells look more abnormal.
Low-grade PIN is not thought to be related to a man’s risk of prostate cancer. On the other hand, high-grade PIN is thought to be a possible precursor to prostate cancer. If you have a prostate biopsy and high-grade PIN is found, there is a greater chance that you might develop prostate cancer over time.
PIN begins to appear in the prostates of some men as early as in their 20s. But many men with PIN will never develop prostate cancer.
For more on PIN, see Tests to Diagnose and Stage Prostate Cancer.
Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA)
In PIA, the prostate cells look smaller than normal, and there are signs of inflammation in the area. PIA is not cancer, but researchers believe that PIA may sometimes lead to high-grade PIN, or perhaps directly to prostate cancer.
There are many different ways to treat prostate cancer. The options doctors recommend depend on whether the cancer has spread outside the prostate and the overall health of the patient.
There’s no absolute prostate cancer prevention, but evidence suggests diet plays a key role. Keep reading for diet tips and more information.
1. Eat tomatoes and other red foods
Tomatoes, watermelon, and other red foods owe their bright color to a powerful antioxidant called lycopene. Some recent studies show that men who consume this fruit and tomato-based products have a lower risk of prostate cancer than those who don’t. However, the American Institute for Cancer Research cautions that studies linking tomatoes to prostate cancer prevention are limited and ongoing.
A 2018 study from Spain suggest that cooking tomatoes makes it easier for your body to absorb lycopene. The redder the tomato, the better because lycopene accumulates during ripening. That means that pale, store-bought tomatoes that are picked too early have less lycopene than vine-ripened tomatoes.
2. Recognize the power of fruits and veggies
Nutrients and vitamins contained in fruits
may lower your risk of getting prostate cancer. Green vegetables contain compounds that help your body break down cancer-causing substances called carcinogens. A nutrient-rich diet may also help slow the spread of cancer.
By eating fruits and vegetables throughout the day, you’ll be less likely to fill up on processed junk food.
3. Consider soybeans and tea
A nutrient called isoflavones has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer, in at least one 2014 review of controlled studies
. Isoflavones are found in:
- tofu (made from soybeans)
- alfalfa sprouts
Researchers have long studied the link between green tea and prostate cancer risk, with mixed results. A 2008 study
showed that men who drink green tea, or take green tea extract supplements, have a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer than those who don’t.
showed that the cell and animal research confirms a link between the key ingredients of green tea and a lower risk of prostate cancer. It noted that further human clinical trials are needed.
4. Pour another cup of coffee
Indulging a serious coffee habit is linked to a decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer:
- Drinking four to five cups
- Trusted Source
- of coffee every day can lower your chances of fatal and high-grade prostate cancer, according to a 2014 review of clinical studies.
- Regardless of how many cups you drink overall, every three cups of coffee you drink can reduce your risk of fatal prostate cancer about 11 percent.
This describes a dose-response relationship between prostate cancer and coffee. That means the effect on prostate cancer goes up or down with the amount of coffee you drink. These effects may not extend
to someone who only grabs an occasional cup.
However, high doses of caffeine can cause major health issues, such as irregular heartbeat and seizures. The Mayo Clinic cautions against ingesting more than 400 milligrams of caffeine a day, the equivalent of four cups of brewed coffee.
How coffee is prepared can also be a factor. A 2015 study in Norway
looked at coffee brewed with a filter, and boiled coffee, which doesn’t use such a filter. Men who drank boiled coffee seemed to have a lower risk of prostate cancer than men who drank coffee prepared another way or not at all.
The chemicals cafestol and kahweol have well-known cancer-fighting abilities. Researchers believe these chemicals are trapped when coffee runs through a paper filter. Boiled coffee may allow these cancer-fighting chemicals to stay in your daily brew.
5. Make good choices about fat
There may be a link between animal fats and an increased risk of prostate cancer. In addition to meat, animal fats are found in lard, butter, and cheese. Whenever possible, replace animal-based fats with plant-based fats.
This, instead of that:
- olive oil instead of butter
- fruit instead of candy
- fresh vegetables instead of prepackaged foods
- nuts or seeds instead of cheese
Also, overcooking meat produces carcinogens, so be careful not to overcook your meat.
6. Stop smoking
Prostate cancer patients who smoke are more likely to have a recurrence of the disease. Smokers also have a higher risk of dying from prostate cancer.
It’s not too late to quit. When compared with current smokers, prostate cancer patients who quit smoking
for more than 10 years had the same mortality risk as those who never smoked.
7. Keep in mind controversial foods
Fish and omega-3
Fatty acid, known as omega-3, may help reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer. Omega-3 is found in certain fish including sardines, tuna, mackerel, trout, and salmon.
There was a study in 2013
that suggested that men with high concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood are more likely to develop prostate cancer.
However, more current research in 2015
found some problems with the research and stated that the study actually did not establish a link between increased intake of omega-3 and increased risk of prostate cancer.
Based on this controversial information, it is best to check with your doctor to discuss what is the best choice for you.
According the American Cancer Society
, some clinical studies in the 1990s found that that low folate levels in your blood can increase your risk for cancer.
However, supplementing with folic acid, a man-made form of folate, may increase the risk
Folate is found in many foods, including green vegetables, beans, whole grains, and fortified breakfast cereals. The American Cancer Society recommends getting adequate amounts of folate through eating a variety of these foods.
Some studies, according to the Mayo Clinic, have linked dairy products, or diets high in calcium, with an increased risk of prostate cancer. However, studies have been mixed, and this risk is considered minimal.
8. Make time for exercise
Being overweight or obese is linked to an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer
Regular exercise can help you maintain a healthy weight. Benefits of exercise include increased muscle mass and better metabolism. Try:
Exercise doesn’t have to be boring. Vary your routine and invite your friends to participate. You’re more likely to work out if it’s fun.
9. Talk to your doctor
Ask your doctor about your risk for developing prostate cancer. Some points to discuss include:
- what medical screening tests you should have as you age
- family history of cancer
- dietary recommendations
Tell your doctor if you’re just beginning a new exercise program, or if you have the following symptoms:
- discomfort anywhere in your pelvic or rectal areas
- difficulty urinating
- blood in your urine or semen
Prostate Cancer Prognosis
In general, the earlier prostate cancer is caught, the more likely it is for a man to get successful treatment and remain disease-free. The overall prognosis for prostate cancer is among the best of all cancers.
It’s important to keep in mind that survival rates and likelihood of recurrence are based on averages and won’t necessarily reflect any individual patient outcome. The prognosis for prostate cancer depends on many factors. Your doctor will offer insight and advice based on your specific disease.
High Cure Rates for Local and Regional Prostate Cancers
Approximately 80 percent to 85 percent of all prostate cancers are detected in the local or regional stages, which represent stages I, II and III. Many men diagnosed and treated at the local or regional stages will be disease-free after five years.
Stage IV Prostate Cancer Prognosis
Prostate cancers detected at the distant stage have an average five-year survival rate of 28 percent, which is much lower than local and regional cancers of the prostate. This average survival rate represents stage IV prostate cancers that have metastasized (spread) beyond nearby areas to lymph nodes, organs or bones in other parts of the body.
Because most prostate cancers are diagnosed with early screening measures and are curable, the average long-term prognosis for prostate cancer is quite encouraging. The figures below, provided by the American Cancer Society, represent the average relative survival rate of all men with prostate cancer. They represent a patient’s chances of survival after a specified number of years as compared with the larger population’s chances of survival during that same timeframe. Since these numbers include all stages of prostate cancer, they will not accurately predict an individual man’s prognosis.
- 5-year relative survival rate of nearly 100 percent: Five years after diagnosis, the average prostate cancer patient is about as likely as a man without prostate cancer to still be living.
- 10-year relative survival rate of 98 percent: Ten years after diagnosis, the average prostate cancer patient is just 2 percent less likely to survive than a man without prostate cancer.
- 15-year relative survival rate of 95 percent: Fifteen years after diagnosis, the average prostate cancer patient is 5 percent less likely to survive than a man without prostate cancer.
Even if your cancer was treated with an initial primary therapy (surgery or radiation), there is always a possibility that the cancer will reoccur. About 20 percent to-30 percent of men will relapse (have the cancer detected by a PSA blood test) after the five-year mark, following the initial therapy. The likelihood of recurrence depends on the extent and aggressiveness of the cancer.
Several online tools have been assembled to help predict the likelihood of recurrence. Try inputting your own information into the Han Tables prediction tool.
Diagnosis: The Role of PSA
Prostate cancer recurrence is determined by rising PSA levels following treatment. Use the following guide to gauge recurrence:
Clinicians use the change in PSA over time as a marker for the aggressiveness of the recurrence. After a certain amount of time, the cancer will become visible radiographically (e.g., via CT scans or bone scans). Prostate cancer can recur locally in the pelvis or elsewhere in the body. The location of the recurrence is determined by these radiographic scans.
- After surgery, PSA levels should drop to zero. When PSA levels rise above 0.2 ng/mL, the cancer is considered recurrent.
- After treatment with radiation, PSA levels rarely drops completely to zero. However, the PSA should level out at a low number, which is called the nadir. When PSA rises 2 points from its lowest value, the cancer is considered recurrent.
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